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Sandra Fowkes Godek

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Jan Burns

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Laura A. Hayden and Meghan Lynch

Edited by Adam Naylor

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Kenneth Mitchell

Column-editor : Sue Finkam

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Yoshiaki Takei

The purpose of the study was to identify mechanical variables that govern successful performance of the handspring with full turn vault. Subjects were 67 male gymnasts from 25 countries performing the vault during the 1992 Olympic Games. The vaults were filmed by two 16-mm Locam II DC cameras operating at 100 Hz. Approximately 80 frames per subject were digitized for each camera view. Direct linear transformation (DLT) was used to calculate the 3-D coordinates of the digitized body points. The method of Hay and Reid (1988) was used to develop a theoretical model to identify the mechanical variables that determine linear and angular motions of the vault. Significant correlations (p < .005) indicated that the following were important determinants for success: large horizontal velocity, large horizontal kinetic energy term, and overall translational kinetic energy term at takeoff from the board; short duration, small vertical displacement of the center of gravity (CG), and small somersaulting angular distance of preflight; large vertical velocity and large vertical kinetic energy term at takeoff from the horse; and large "amplitude of postflight," that is, large horizontal and vertical displacements of CG and long duration of flight; great height of CG during the second quarter-tum in postflight; and small point deduction for landing.

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Amy Barrette and Katherine Harman

successful. 4 , 5 Evidence exists that external sources of pressure, influenced by cultural beliefs, push athletes to adopt this perspective. 6 Parents, teammates, peers, and fans will encourage athletes to ignore their pain even at the expense of creating further damage. 2 , 4 The perspective of coaches

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Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle

Key Points ▸ Though their relationships with student-athletes and coaches were often harmonious, participants experienced sexism and discrimination from the time they were students through their professional careers. ▸ Athletic trainers identified themselves as considerate, helpful, self

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

on the athletic team. Moreover, sport grooming is facilitated by the gradual building of the athlete’s trust in the coach as he scaffolds her performance or presents the possibility of achieving her athletic dreams such as winning championships or earning an athletic scholarship (see Brackenridge

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Glen M. Blenkinsop, Ying Liang, Nicholas J. Gallimore and Michael J. Hiley

different courses has been measured, and it was found that approximately 80% of shots were played from a slope between ±1° and 10°, with an average inclination of 4.6° (n = 953). 11 Golf coaching literature often stresses the importance of the correct weight transfer pattern throughout the golf swing. 12