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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

. For example, Galen (180 A.D.) explained why “ball games train cognitive abilities and skills such as attention, planning and critical thinking and simultaneously provide pleasure to improve health and excel in life” (as cited in Miller, 2012 , p. 122). Reinvesting on these forgotten ideas using

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

. ( 2013 ). The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities . Comprehensive Physiology, 3, 403 – 428 . PubMed ID: 23720292 doi: 10.1002/cphy.c110063 Graham , G. , Holt/Hale , S.A. , & Parker , M. ( 2012 ). Children moving: A reflective approach to teaching physical education with movement

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp and Bert Steenbergen

participation in sports, physical activity, and activities of daily living. In this respect, it is increasingly recognized that motor learning interventions should be tailored to the children’s individual motor and cognitive abilities and constraints ( Chow, Davids, Button, & Renshaw, 2015 ). At present

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

exercise on cognitive abilities . Comprehensive Physiology, 3 , 403 – 428 . PubMed ID: 23720292 doi:10.1002/cphy.c110063 Hope , L. , Lewinski , W. , Dixon , J. , Blocksidge , D. , & Gabbert , F. ( 2012 ). Witnesses in action: The effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

Neuropsychological Society, 11 ( 4 ), 488 – 407 . PubMed doi: 10.1017/S1355617705050599 Wilson , R.S. , Beckett , L.A. , Barnes , L.L. , Schneider , J.A. , Bach , J. , Evans , D.A. , & Bennett , D.A. ( 2002 ). Individual differences in rates of change in cognitive abilities of older persons

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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

. , & Tversky , A. ( 1979 ). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk . Econometrica, 47 ( 2 ), 263 – 291 . doi: 10.2307/1914185 Kanfer , R. , & Ackerman , P.L. ( 1989 ). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

& Lambourne, 2011 ; Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015 ), might increase both physical activity level and learning efficiency. However, several studies have found a deterioration in executive function (i.e., higher order cognitive abilities involved in goal-directed behaviors) during aerobic exercise ( Pontifex

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Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos and Athanasios Papaioannou

) identified attention control as one of the most important cognitive abilities to successful sports performance. According to Schmeichel and Baumeister ( 2010 ), attention control is required when avoiding or resisting paying attention to powerful internal or external stimuli that one is not supposed to

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

of healthy young adults (25.20 ± 4.13 years old) was recruited as the young adult group. All older adult subjects were given the Mini-Mental State Examination prior to the experiment, and the scores indicated that their cognitive abilities were normal (average score: 29.73 ± 0.80). All subjects were

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Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu

three tests: the Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Five Digit Test (FDT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The MoCA ( Nasreddine et al., 2005 ) is a brief tool of cognitive abilities designed to screen for mild cognitive dysfunction. It assesses various cognitive domains (visuospatial and