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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

. For example, Galen (180 A.D.) explained why “ball games train cognitive abilities and skills such as attention, planning and critical thinking and simultaneously provide pleasure to improve health and excel in life” (as cited in Miller, 2012 , p. 122). Reinvesting on these forgotten ideas using

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

& Lambourne, 2011 ; Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015 ), might increase both physical activity level and learning efficiency. However, several studies have found a deterioration in executive function (i.e., higher order cognitive abilities involved in goal-directed behaviors) during aerobic exercise ( Pontifex

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

exercise on cognitive abilities . Comprehensive Physiology, 3 , 403 – 428 . PubMed ID: 23720292 doi:10.1002/cphy.c110063 Hope , L. , Lewinski , W. , Dixon , J. , Blocksidge , D. , & Gabbert , F. ( 2012 ). Witnesses in action: The effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition

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Brittany G. Travers, Heather L. Kirkorian, Matthew J. Jiang, Koeun Choi, Karl S. Rosengren, Porter Pavalko and Paul Jobin

instructions or the ability to plan the fold. However, we did not have a standardized, non-parent-report measure of these cognitive abilities, which is a limitation of the present study and a key avenue for future research. In terms of motor contributions to folding, grip strength and pinch strength covary

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Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos and Athanasios Papaioannou

) identified attention control as one of the most important cognitive abilities to successful sports performance. According to Schmeichel and Baumeister ( 2010 ), attention control is required when avoiding or resisting paying attention to powerful internal or external stimuli that one is not supposed to

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Sophie A. Kay and Lisa R. Grimm

. , & Tversky , A. ( 1979 ). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk . Econometrica, 47 ( 2 ), 263 – 291 . doi: 10.2307/1914185 Kanfer , R. , & Ackerman , P.L. ( 1989 ). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

Neuropsychological Society, 11 ( 4 ), 488 – 407 . PubMed doi: 10.1017/S1355617705050599 Wilson , R.S. , Beckett , L.A. , Barnes , L.L. , Schneider , J.A. , Bach , J. , Evans , D.A. , & Bennett , D.A. ( 2002 ). Individual differences in rates of change in cognitive abilities of older persons

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Blake Bennett

training contexts (e.g., perceptual learning-inspired training programs and virtual reality simulations) that provide augmented sporting settings leading to possible enhancements in sports-specific visual and cognitive abilities and competitive advantages. Gréhaigne, Caty, and Godbout ( 2010 ) posited that

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Marie H. Murphy, Angela Carlin, Catherine Woods, Alan Nevill, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kyle Ferguson and Niamh Murphy

: 20422333 doi:10.1007/s12160-010-9172-x 20422333 10.1007/s12160-010-9172-x 6. Gomez-Pinilla F , Hillman C . The influence of exercise on cognitive abilities . Compr Physiol . 2013 ; 3 ( 1 ): 403 – 428 . PubMed ID: 23720292 23720292 7. Hallal P , Andersen LB , Bull F , et al . Global

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

cardiorespiratory fitness that is the strongest protective factor. Executive Functioning, Physical Activity, and Fitness Executive functions are defined as higher level control processes that coordinate other cognitive abilities ( Miyake et al., 2000 ). Within the literature, five subdomains of executive function