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Fernando Segura Millan Trejo, Mark Norman and Chirstophe Jaccoud

hypothesis needs to be considered: the different meanings about female players’ participation and about competitiveness in soccer can produce dissatisfaction and frustration in some participants. It is where the aspects of de-sportization are worked ( Sterchele, 2015 ) that there is greater potential to

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Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield

players of different competitive standards. The third hypothesis anticipated that netballers competing at the higher levels of achievement will demonstrate lower 2D4D ratio, higher mental toughness levels and masculinity and lower femininity. Methods Design The study employed a cross

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Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell and Loretta DiPietro

than ever before, ranging from recreational to highly select travel teams and Olympic-development programs. Recreational programs are generally lower-cost for families, emphasizing inclusive participation among all players. Conversely, competitive travel and Olympic-development programs typically

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Philip G. White and James E. Curtis

Multivariate analyses are presented showing, for the mid-1970s, the comparative propensities of Canadian anglophones and francophones to participate in forms of competitive sport and sport outside the family. Presented are data consistent with the values-differences perspective, which holds that there are differences in orientation toward achievement and the family across the Canadian linguistic groups. The analyses focus on a test of a specification of the values-differences thesis—the school-socialization interpretation, which holds that sport involvement patterns result in part because of differences in how competitive sport is organized in the schools in French Canada versus English Canada. It was found that differences in competitive sport participation were smaller after controls for respondents’ experience with sport during the school years. However, there remained significant francophone/anglophone differences in orientation to competitive and extra-family sport after controls for the effects of school experience and other social background factors.

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Maria T. Allison and Carrie Meyer

This investigation used qualitative techniques to identify and analyze the experiences of elite female tennis professionals and their perceptions of their competitive years and subsequent retirement from the sport. Through a system of networking and snowball sampling techniques (Babbie, 1986), 28 athletes who had played on the professional tennis circuit were contacted and asked to complete an extensive semistructured questionnaire; 20 completed questionnaires were returned. The questionnaire asked players to recount their earliest expectations and goals in competitive tennis, their experiences and perceptions during their most competitive years, and their reasons for and reactions to retirement from the tour. In general, results indicated that the athletes did not find disengagement from their competitive years traumatic, but rather found it as an opportunity to reestablish more traditional societal roles and lifestyles.

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Alixandra N. Krahn

sponsorship as necessary for the advancement of women in sport coaching. Therefore, a host of questions remain about the actual mechanics of an effective sponsorship system for women coaches in elite sport (i.e., how exactly would sponsorship work in competitive sports?), and much more critical research

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Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling

more competitive levels of sport women’s representation in coaching positions is low. For example, across 54 national teams in the Canadian sport system, women comprise only 16% of head coach and 18% of assistant coach positions ( Sport Canada, 2016 ). At the university level, women head coaches made

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Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling

including their time as competitive athletes to their lives post-retirement. Female athletes were the focus of this study given the evidence from outside of sport that girls and women face more gender-based violence than boys and men ( Ellsberg, 2006 ) and the evidence from sport that female athletes

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Matt C. Crockett and Ted Butryn

dynamics, and its hyper-competitive attributes. The final discussion section explores how these unique spatial characteristics connect to Eichberg’s trialectic model as well as how they influence social interactions and bodily movement within the space. Gaining Access My initial experiences with CrossFit

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Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien

”. Several participants voiced concerns in relation to fear of injury as a barrier to PA and sport participation, with one participant stating: “Some people get a bit too competitive and that kind of like makes you feel not that confident, like, some people just get a bit too into it and yeah know pushing