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Mark C. Richardson, Andrew Wilkinson, Paul Chesterton and William Evans

doi: 10.1177/0363546505275011 16093546 3. Ardern CL , Webster KE , Taylor NF , Feller JA . Return to the preinjury level of competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: two-thirds of patients have not returned by 12 months after surgery . Am J Sports Med

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Moshe Ayalon, Nadav Dotan, Shiri Bretter and Gordon Waddington

initial deficit would provide a better target for proprioceptive rehabilitation. Limitations of the Study and Possible Future Studies The major limitations of the current study were (1) all participants in the current study had to cease their athletic training and competitive sport participation for a

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Mayrena I. Hernandez, Kevin M. Biese, Dan A. Schaefer, Eric G. Post, David R. Bell and M. Alison Brooks

. Understanding dropout and prolonged engagement in adolescent competitive sport . Psychol Sport Exerc . 2008 ; 9 : 645 – 662 . doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.08.003 26. DiSanti JS , Post EG , Bell DR , et al . Exploring coaches’ perceptions of youth sport specialization: a comparison of high school

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen

Division I student-athletes . J Athl Train . 2015 ; 50 ( 3 ): 256 – 261 . PubMed ID: 25562455 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.83 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.83 6. Walker N , Thatcher J , Lavallee D . Psychological responses to injury in competitive sport: a critical review . J R Soc Promot Health . 2007

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Christopher Kuenze, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Karin Pfieffer, Stephanie Trigsted, Dane Cook, Caroline Lisee and David Bell

Musculoskeletal injury is a primary barrier to participation in physical activity among adults. 1 Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a traumatic musculoskeletal injury that occurs most commonly among young individuals during participation in recreational physical activity or competitive

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J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Jason P. Mihalik

. Psychosom Med . 2011 ; 73 ( 8 ): 672 – 678 . PubMed ID: 21949426 doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31822f9cd7 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31822f9cd7 21949426 43. DeFreese JD , Smith AL . Athlete social support, negative social interactions and psychological health across a competitive sport season . J Sport Exerc Psychol

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

help both nonskilled and skilled athletes to improve motor skills, skills which should, ultimately, also benefit their performance under high pressure conditions, such as competitive sport events. Methods Participants Thirty male novice dart players ( M age  = 23.53 years, SD  = 3.42) took part in the

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Aditi Mankad, Sandy Gordon and Karen Wallman

Psychological trauma associated with long-term injury can cause athletes to experience intense stress-like symptoms and considerable negative affect (e.g., Tracey, 2003; Udry, 1997). Due to the nature of competitive sport, however, it is thought that injured athletes inhibit these emotions to the detriment of their physical health. The present study examined Pennebaker’s (1989) emotional disclosure paradigm within a sporting context. It was hypothesized that writing about a traumatic injury would reduce athletes’ mood disturbance and stress during rehabilitation. Further, it was believed that these changes would correspond with an increase in immune expression from pre- to postintervention. Elite injured athletes (N = 9) rehabilitating from anterior cruciate ligament surgery participated in the 3-day writing intervention, consisting of 3 X 20 min writing sessions, during which athletes disclosed negative emotions associated with their injury and rehabilitation experiences. Measures were taken at six time-points (T1-T6), with pre- and postintervention phases lasting for 4 weeks each. Measures consisted of psychological stress (intrusion and avoidance), total mood disturbance, and relative cell-counts/µL for circulating T-cells (CD4/8) and NK cells (CD16/56). Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed a signifcant main effect of time for intrusion, F(5, 70) = 5.83, p =.001, η2 = .29 and avoidance, F(5, 70) = 5.73, p =.002, η2 = 0.29 subscales; mood disturbance, F(5, 70) = 3.71, p= 0.005, η2 = 0.21; and CD4+, F(5, 65) = 2.39, p= 0.048, η2 = .16. Subsequent linear contrasts provided further evidence of significant prepost differences among the stress, mood state, and immune variables. These results suggest that the written disclosure intervention has potential psycho-immunological benefits for athletes rehabilitating from long-term injury.

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Pathology, or Modern Day Competitive Sport? Mark T. Suffolk * 12 2014 8 4 339 356 10.1123/jcsp.2014-0044 We Are Able, We Intend, We Act—But We Do Not Succeed: A Theoretical Framework for a Better Understanding of Paradoxical Performance in Sports Babett H. Lobinger * Martin K. Klämpfl * Eckart

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

participation, such as high training demands and lack of peer support outside of their sport ( Van Rensburg, Surujlal, & Dhurup, 2011 ). These unique barriers emphasize the importance of addressing well-being in competitive sport. Due to the great degree of temporal and emotional investment that many athletes