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Vennila Krishnan and Slobodan Jaric

Coordination of the hand grip (G; acting normally to the grasping surface) and load forces (L; acting in parallel) in bimanual static tasks was studied. L symmetry (either the magnitude or direction) and frequency were manipulated in healthy participants (N = 14). More complex tasks (i.e., the higher frequency and/or asymmetric ones) revealed expected deterioration in both the task performance (accuracy of the prescribed L force profiles) and force coordination (G/L ratio and G-L correlation) suggesting importance of L frequency and symmetry in prehension activities. However, the same tasks revealed a more prominent deterioration of interlimb than the within-limb force coordination. This could be interpreted by two partly different and noncompeting neural control mechanisms where the coordination of interlimb forces may be based on ad-hoc and task-specific muscle coordination (often referred to as muscle synergies) while the within-limb coordination of G and L could be based on more stable and partly reflex mechanisms.

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Emily Dane-Staples

classroom tasks but are ones commonly used because they require student engagement with material ( Mangram et al., 2015 ; Yew et al., 2016 ). Between tasks, the level of engagement and the complexity is not always equal, which is why hierarchical models related to active learning have been proposed. The

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

constructed through the synergy of complexity, formalization, and centralization ( Slack & Parent, 2006 ). Presented through three paths, complexity focuses on how organizations are separated into various departments. First, horizontal differentiation can influence complexity through the creation and

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Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake

on each of the tasks in question has been the focus of ongoing research, and the extent to which the addition of a dual task affects walking appears to depend on a number of factors including the age of the participants, the gait parameters being examined, and the type and complexity of the dual task

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Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum

lacks sufficient storage capacity and permanent sales locations. However, space exists for temporary concessions stands to be set up each game day. Ordering, delivery timing, inventory management, and establishing points of sale would also be challenging. Given the complexity of using existing and added

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Sarah Zipp, Tavis Smith and Simon Darnell

( Robeyns, 2017 ), into personal, social, and environmental categories. Although the authors and other capability scholars recognize the complexity and interdependence of these factors, they are conceptually divided into these three categories to better unpack how capabilities are expanded or constrained

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

& Kvalø, 2007 ; Spray, Wang, Biddle, & Chatzisarantis, 2006 ; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2003 ). A challenge of studying the motivational mechanisms involved in inclusion in PE is the potential complexity of associations: many factors are involved, they can be combined in different ways, and several

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Nikolaus A. Dean

illustrate some of the social complexities of SRC, but also hope to provide a “voice” to the lived experience of SRC ( Ellis, 2009 ). Autoethnography can be understood as a method that draws upon personal stories of and about the self, told through a lens of culture ( Adams, Holman-Jones, & Ellis, 2014

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Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

). Researchers have found that sport and physical education structures ultimately fail to recognize the multiplicity and complexity of gender and sexuality ( Caudwell, 2014 ) and have called for reorganization away from the traditional gender binary within physical education ( Sykes, 2011 ) and sport ( Symons

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Matt Hoffmann, Todd Loughead and Jeffrey Caron

research, we were interested in the complexity and lived experiences of one exemplary peer athlete mentor. As noted by Kuklick, Gearity, Thompson, and Neelis ( 2016 ), single-case-study designs are not concerned with statistical generalizability. However, given that some of our results link well with