In this paper l consider how the contemporary national imagination is fabricated through racially coded deviance by interrogating what Nike calls its P.L.A.Y (Participate in the Lives of American Youth) campaign. P.L.A.Y., represented as a practical challenge to recent developments that deny “kids” access to sport and fitness activities, is part of a promotional network through which Nike seeks to secure a patriotic, charitable, and socially responsible public profile. In part, this profile and the complex terrain Nike occupies are territorialized through the somatic identity of Michael Jordan. I argue that representative figures like American Jordan are both effects and instruments of modern power. As such, Jordan is an element in and expression of a discursive formation that works to delimit and render intelligible what/who count as violent, criminal, and dangerous. The regulatory ideals invoked through a nation-centric discourse, American principles, Michael Jordan, and the apparent inverse relationship between urban sport and gangs work to bound and limit identities in ways that mask the complexities of the terrain occupied by transnational corporations like Nike, while exacerbating punitive and vengeful desires directed at Black urban youth.
Cheryl L. Cole
Ellen J. Staurowsky and Jessica DiManno
As the American public is confronted with a more established female sport presence at all levels, the potential for girls to consider a career in sport media has expanded exponentially. Girls growing up in the age of ‘GRRL Power’ envision themselves as professional basketball players, world champion soccer stars, women who run like the wind, and as sports broadcasters. However, the dawn of a new age has also brought with it increasing complexity with regard to the issues aspiring young women seeking careers in sport media encounter. The overall purpose of this study was to extend the frame of our understanding about gender, sport, and the media by documenting the experiences, concerns, and attitudes of undergraduate females who hope to pursue careers as sports journalists, sports broadcasters, and sport media professionals. Based on interviews with ten undergraduate women, the next generation of women in sport media are more than prepared to take on with confidence, assertiveness, and a great deal of solid professional training the challenges that await them. However, even as undergraduates, these women have had to deal with, and make sense, of sexual objectification and sexism in the workplace. The article concludes with recommendations for how to support young women in their quest to pursue careers in sport media.
Sarah Zipp, Tavis Smith and Simon Darnell
( Robeyns, 2017 ), into personal, social, and environmental categories. Although the authors and other capability scholars recognize the complexity and interdependence of these factors, they are conceptually divided into these three categories to better unpack how capabilities are expanded or constrained
Jan Wright and Shoshana Dreyfus
The notion of the body as “a medium of culture” (Bordo, 1990, p. 13), and specifically the female body as a site on which the oppression of patriarchy is inscribed or played out has been discussed by many feminist theorists (Bartky, 1988; Bordo, 1990; Dimen, 1989). More recently there has been increasing interest in the material body as a source of kinesthetic pleasure rather than, or simultaneously as, a site of inscription and oppression. In searching for new ways to think and talk about the body, there is a recognition that it cannot be seen simply as either a site of oppression or pleasure, but rather as a site where many apparently contradictory and opposing discourses can coexist and where interesting and complex mixes of pleasure and oppression can occur simultaneously (Shilling, 1993).
In this paper we attempt to explore these complexities through a study of belly dancing. This is a form of physical activity with an increasingly large following. On one hand, it seems possible to conceive of belly dancing as ‘feminist project’ as it offers possibilities for challenging hegemonic constructions of femininity and for women’s empowerment; on the other hand, many of the practices associated with belly dancing work to construct discourses which sit uncomfortably with feminist understandings of the body. This paper then becomes an exploration of the complex meanings which constitute the contemporary practice of belly dancing, with reference to a specific dance class in a regional city in Australia.
While we are using the description ‘feminist project’ as a guiding principle for this paper, we also recognize that this is not a totalizing concept and will be different for different women in different contexts. We also recognize that the attribute “feminist” is itself not unitary but that feminist theory takes many forms, takes up different issues and defines its objects of study in a variety of ways. In the paper we draw on feminist post-structuralist theory to examine the various discourses and social practices of belly dancing. This allows us to recognize that in talking about the dance, the women interviewed may draw on a wide range of discourses which are concerned with women and their bodies, and which in their different ways may be characterized as feminist. On the other hand, the consequences of taking up one discourse rather than another have implications for how women are located and locate themselves in relations of power. We are wary, for instance, of essentializing discourses which attempt to naturalize sexual differences in a context where male and female attributes are often seen as constituting the opposite sides of a binary where those attributes associated with women are regarded as of lesser value.
Faye Linda Wachs
argument. The strength of her work comes from her point that fitness can be transformative for us, and we can transform fitness and the experience of fitness. Hentges shares poignant stories from her experiences and an instructor and a participant. These stories are the highlight and mark the complexity of
Constancio R. Arnaldo
text in undergraduate and graduate courses in sport studies, gender studies, and Asian American Studies, as well as a lay audience interested in sport and/or Japanese Americans. While Willms’ study no doubt focused on the Japanese American community to shed light on the contradictions, complexities
history about the often-competing visions and plans for Hamilton Harbour, where plans were continually adjusted to address the complexities of these varied interests. Thus, by the late twentieth-century the industrial stranglehold over the bay loosened, although the site in many respects remains
together, the chapters in No Slam Dunk explore and illuminate the complexities and unevenness of social change in gender and sport by deploying a multilevel analysis (structure, interaction, cultural beliefs and symbols), by attending to varying levels of salience and inequalities within and between
their initial argument for testosterone’s culturally influenced narrative into its raced and classed implications, adding complexity to the dominant discourse involving testosterone. However, while subsequent chapters often refer to and build on the works of scientists mentioned in previous chapters
excellence or commercial success are insufficient to represent issues like technology and doping. Sport and Technology addresses the diversity and complexity of these issues and presents a cogent case for utilizing ANT in sport studies. Through ANT, Kerr adopts a view of sport as the “enrolment or non