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Y.L. Lo, H.H. Zhang, C.C. Wang, Z.Y. Chin, S. Fook-Chong, C. Gabriel and C.T. Guan

In overt reading and singing tasks, actual vocalization of words in a rhythmic fashion is performed. During execution of these tasks, the role of underlying vascular processes in relation to cortical excitability changes in a spatial manner is uncertain. Our objective was to investigate cortical excitability changes during reading and singing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), as well as vascular changes with nearinfrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Findings with TMS and NIRS were correlated. TMS and NIRS recordings were performed in 5 normal subjects while they performed reading and singing tasks separately. TMS was applied over the left motor cortex at 9 positions 2.5 cm apart. NIRS recordings were made over these identical positions. Although both TMS and NIRS showed significant mean cortical excitability and hemodynamic changes from baseline during vocalization tasks, there was no significant spatial correlation of these changes evaluated with the 2 techniques over the left motor cortex. Our findings suggest that increased left-sided cortical excitability from overt vocalization tasks in the corresponding “hand area” were the result of “functional connectivity,” rather than an underlying “vascular overflow mechanism” from the adjacent speech processing or face/mouth areas. Our findings also imply that functional neurophysiological and vascular methods may evaluate separate underlying processes, although subjects performed identical vocalization tasks. Future research combining similar methodologies should embrace this aspect and harness their separate capabilities.

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Nicolas Babault, Wacef Bazine, Gaëlle Deley, Christos Paizis and Grégory Lattier

Purpose:

To examine the acute effect of a single static-stretching session of hamstring muscles on torque production in relation with individual flexibility.

Methods:

Maximal voluntary concentric torque of hamstring muscles was measured before and after a static-stretching session (6 × 30 s). Torque changes were correlated with the flexibility level determined at the onset of the experimental procedure.

Results:

The hamstring-stretching intervention significantly reduced maximal concentric torque in participants with low and high hamstring flexibility. Hamstring flexibility and torque decrease, determined immediately after the stretching procedure, were negatively correlated.

Conclusions:

Torque decrease measured after the static-stretching session is dependent on participant flexibility. Participants with low flexibility are much more likely to demonstrate large torque decreases poststretching.

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Mary Taylor, Stacie Fruth and Sam Kegerreis

Rehabilitation of the shoulder offers many challenges. Arthroscopic and advanced imaging techniques have facilitated significant changes in our perception and management of glenoid labral pathology. Despite this progress, controversies involving the glenoid labrum continue to exist. This paper presents an overview of glenoid labral histology, morphology, and vascularity. Labral injuries are investigated and categorized. The management of glenoid labral pathology is discussed along with ramifications for shoulder rehabilitation.

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Weimo Zhu, Zorica Nedovic-Budic, Robert B. Olshansky, Jed Marti, Yong Gao, Youngsik Park, Edward McAuley and Wojciech Chodzko-Zajko

Purpose:

To introduce Agent-Based Model (ABM) to physical activity (PA) research and, using data from a study of neighborhood walkability and walking behavior, to illustrate parameters for an ABM of walking behavior.

Method:

The concept, brief history, mechanism, major components, key steps, advantages, and limitations of ABM were first introduced. For illustration, 10 participants (age in years: mean = 68, SD = 8) were recruited from a walkable and a nonwalkable neighborhood. They wore AMP 331 triaxial accelerometers and GeoLogger GPA tracking devices for 21 days. Data were analyzed using conventional statistics and highresolution geographic image analysis, which focused on a) path length, b) path duration, c) number of GPS reporting points, and d) interaction between distances and time.

Results:

Average steps by subjects ranged from 1810−10,453 steps per day (mean = 6899, SD = 3823). No statistical difference in walking behavior was found between neighborhoods (Walkable = 6710 ± 2781, Nonwalkable = 7096 ± 4674). Three environment parameters (ie, sidewalk, crosswalk, and path) were identified for future ABM simulation.

Conclusion:

ABM should provide a better understanding of PA behavior’s interaction with the environment, as illustrated using a real-life example. PA field should take advantage of ABM in future research.

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Ana Diniz, João Barreiros and Nuno Crato

Repetitive movements lead to isochronous serial interval production which exhibit inherent variability. The Wing-Kristofferson model offers a decomposition of the interresponse intervals in tapping tasks based on a cognitive component and on a motor component. We suggest a new theoretical and fully parametric approach to this model in which the cognitive component is modeled as a long-memory process and the motor component is treated as a white noise process, mutually independent. Under these assumptions, we obtained the autocorrelation function and the spectral density function. Furthermore, we propose an estimator based on the maximization of the frequency-domain representation of the likelihood function. Finally, we conducted a simulation study to assess the properties of this estimator and performed an experimental study involving tapping tasks with two target frequencies (1.250 Hz and 0.625 Hz).

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Isabelle Schöffl, Volker Schöffl, J. Dötsch, H.G. Dörr and J. Jüngert

Over the last years concerns have been raised about the health effects particulary on young climbers due to the observation of short stature with low body weight and body fat in sports climbers. The aim of this study was to investigate anthropometric and hormonal data for climbers of the German Junior national team. 16 climbers were compared with 14—age matched nonclimbers with respect to several anthropometric variables, leptin level, and climbing characteristics. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) standard deviation scores (SDS) for boys were not significantly different from the controls, whereas girls had significantly lower SDS-values for weight and BMI. In comparison with the control group boys and girls had a lower skinfold thickness. The leptin values were lower than the calculated leptin levels but only reached significance for the girls. The young athletes of the GJNT were neither of short stature nor thin when compared with a physically active control group. The low body fat in boys and girls was within expected limits. The lower leptin levels might be attributed to a decrease in total body fat.

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Cristiane Petra Miculis, Wagner De Campos and Margaret Cristina da Silva Boguszewski

Background:

The aim of this study was to correlate glycemic control (GC) and variables of physical activity levels (PAL) in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods:

Fifty children and adolescents with T1DM were selected. Personal and medical data for the patients were collected. Physical evaluations of body weight and sexual maturation were undertaken. Bouchard’s questionnaire was applied to evaluate PAL as well as for time spent on physical activities.

Results:

Sixty-four percent of the subjects were sexually mature. Differences were observed between females and males in insulin dose, duration of light physical activity, and sleeping time (P < .05). Ninety percent presented poor GC and 80% had a low PAL. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was significantly correlated with PAL, with sedentary time, and with sleeping time. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly correlated with sedentary time and sleeping time. Among the three groups of PAL (insufficient × moderate × active) there were differences in HbA1c (%), FBG (mg/dL), duration of disease (years), and insulin dose (UI/kg/day) (P < 0.001).

Conclusion:

GC was significantly correlated with PAL. Among the three groups of physical activity level, the most active group was seen to have the best GC.

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Trey Brokaw

This presentation will share the results from a study conducted on college track and field athletes at the NCAA division II level. The study compares the results of scores on the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) and, individual athlete’s improvements in their event area according to the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) scoring charts for track and field. A select group of primarily middle distance and distance runners was selected for the study. These athletes were given a baseline TOPS examination to evaluate their prior knowledge and use of mental skills in their athletic experiences. Personal best times in the athlete’s primary events were recorded from the previous year. During the nine weeks of the outdoor track and field season that this study took place; athletes were introduced to a wide array of activities associated with improving their mental skills. Such activities included goal setting, imagery, relaxation, optimum level of arousal, affirmations, and the use of positive self-talk and routines. Athletes would have an organized mental skills session at least twice each of the nine weeks of the season. Athletes also had an individual meeting with the coaches to go over goal setting and the use of their mental skills to enhance their physical skills. After the outdoor season was completed the athletes took a post-examination TOPS. The scores were compared with their pretest scores as well as their improvement in personal best times in their main events on the track.

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Lílian Ramiro Felicio, Marcelo Camargo Saad, Rogério Ferreira Liporaci, Augusto do Prado Baffa, Antônio Carlos dos Santos and Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi

The purpose of this study was to correlate the trochlear shape and patellar tilt angle and lateral patellar displacement at rest and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) exercises during open (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) in subjects with and without anterior knee pain. Subjects were all women, 20 who were clinically healthy and 19 diagnosed with anterior knee pain. All subjects were evaluated and subjected to magnetic resonance exams during OKC and CKC exercise with the knee placed at 15, 30, and 45 degrees of flexion. The parameters evaluated were sulcus angle, patellar tilt angle and patellar displacement using bisect offset. Pearson’s r coefficient was used, with p < .05. Our results revealed in knee pain group during CKC and OKC at 15 degrees that the increase in the sulcus angle is associated with a tilt increase and patellar lateral displacement. Comparing sulcus angle, patellar tilt angle and bisect offset values between MVIC in OKC and CKC in the knee pain group, it was observed that patellar tilt angle increased in OKC only with the knee flexed at 30 degrees. Based on our results, we conclude that reduced trochlear depth is correlated with increased lateral patellar tilt and displacement during OKC and CKC at 15 degrees of flexion in people with anterior knee pain. By contrast, 30 degrees of knee flexion in CKC is more recommended in rehabilitation protocols because the patella was more stable than in other positions.