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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

regarding less competitiveness in females echoes previous research in skeleton, weightlifting, cross-country skiing, mountain biking, and track cycling. 12 , 13 , 20 , 21 Effect of Qualification Time Trial on Match-Sprint Racing The magnitudes of the observed correlations indicate that performance in the

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

performance and recovery . Sports Med . 2017 ; 47 ( 3 ): 429 – 438 . PubMed ID: 27475952 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0590-1 27475952 10.1007/s40279-016-0590-1 27. Hauser A , Zinner C , Born DP , Wehrlin JP , Sperlich B . Does hyperoxic recovery during cross-country skiing team sprints enhance

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

healthy active participants (5 men and 2 women; mean [SD] 26.6 [2.9] y, 74.0 [13.1] kg, 1.76 [0.09] m, 14.1% [4.9%] body fat) training ≥4 hours per week (running, cross-country skiing, swimming, climbing, cycling, resistance training) were involved in this study. The experimental protocol was approved by

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Lukas Höllrigl, Christian Raschner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

increasing muscle activation levels while perceived exertion stays the same . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 101 ( 6 ): 771 – 781 . doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0458-z 20. Hauser A , Zinner C , Born DP , Wehrlin JP , Sperlich B . Does hyperoxic recovery during cross-country skiing team sprints

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

numerous exercise modalities (i.e., cycling, running, rowing, cross-country skiing, and swimming). Studies reporting benefits typically used caffeine dosages of 3–6 mg/kg of body mass (BM), in the form of anhydrous caffeine (i.e., pill or powder form), consumed ∼60 min prior to exercise ( Ganio et

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

ergogenic effect under actual competition and field conditions, when additional factors come into play. This is supported by the similarly small performance benefit (∼4%) reported for an 8-km cross-country skiing time trial after ingestion of an identical dose to the one used in this study ( Stadheim et

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

was shown to be equally effective, when repeated, 24 hr apart, to enhance the performance of two cross-country ski time-trials ( Stadheim et al., 2014 ). This benefit occurred despite increased muscle damage and soreness from the first bout, attributed to the greater exercise effort made possible by

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

of elite sports, including cross-country skiing and biathlon, 21 , 22 cycling, 23 – 26 kayaking, 27 , 28 orienteering, 29 sprinting, 30 swimming, 31 , 32 and tennis. 33 Depending on the event and the prevailing philosophies in a sport, coaches and athletes may plan for single, double, or

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Øyvind Skattebo and Thomas Losnegard

Biathlon is a complex Winter Olympic sport that combines intensive cross-country skiing with high-precision rifle marksmanship. Depending on the competition format, an event consists of 3 to 5 skiing laps of 2 to 4 km interspersed by 2 to 4 shootings, each consisting of 5 shots. The combination of

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Wesley J. Wilson

fitness units, which include aerobics, swimming, weight training, cross-country skiing, and fitness activities. The greatest strength of Part II lies in the number of teaching units (38 in total) and their variety. Many sports and physical activities may be more or less available (or preferred) based on