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Jan G. Bourgois, Gil Bourgois and Jan Boone

model, which closely resembled the current polarized TID, became better introduced in different countries worldwide, 20 , 21 as well as in different endurance sports. A summary of published studies on TID in specific periods or over a complete training year in different endurance sports (rowing, cross-country

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Wesley J. Wilson

fitness units, which include aerobics, swimming, weight training, cross-country skiing, and fitness activities. The greatest strength of Part II lies in the number of teaching units (38 in total) and their variety. Many sports and physical activities may be more or less available (or preferred) based on

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

performance and recovery . Sports Med . 2017 ; 47 ( 3 ): 429 – 438 . PubMed ID: 27475952 doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0590-1 27475952 10.1007/s40279-016-0590-1 27. Hauser A , Zinner C , Born DP , Wehrlin JP , Sperlich B . Does hyperoxic recovery during cross-country skiing team sprints enhance

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

regarding less competitiveness in females echoes previous research in skeleton, weightlifting, cross-country skiing, mountain biking, and track cycling. 12 , 13 , 20 , 21 Effect of Qualification Time Trial on Match-Sprint Racing The magnitudes of the observed correlations indicate that performance in the

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

healthy active participants (5 men and 2 women; mean [SD] 26.6 [2.9] y, 74.0 [13.1] kg, 1.76 [0.09] m, 14.1% [4.9%] body fat) training ≥4 hours per week (running, cross-country skiing, swimming, climbing, cycling, resistance training) were involved in this study. The experimental protocol was approved by

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Ryan M. Chambers, Tim J. Gabbett and Michael H. Cole

C , Chapman D . Identification of cross-country skiing movement patterns using micro-sensors . Sensors . 2012 ; 12 ( 12 ): 5047 – 5066 . PubMed ID: 22666075 doi:10.3390/s120405047 10.3390/s120405047 22666075 42. Gastin P , Mclean O , Breed R , Spittle M . Tackle and impact

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Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann and Christoph Clephas

It is well accepted that regular strength training can improve the performance of endurance athletes in sports such as cycling, endurance running, cross-country skiing, and swimming. 1 These benefits are typically brought about by improvements in neuromuscular efficiency, characterized by shifts

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Campbell Menzies, Michael Wood, Joel Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Robbie Jones, Kostas Tsintzas, Javier T. Gonzalez and James A. Betts

. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39 ( 9 ), 998 – 1011 . PubMed ID: 24951297 doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0027 Stocks , B. , Betts , J.A. , & McGawley , K. ( 2016 ). Effects of carbohydrate dose and frequency on metabolism, gastrointestinal discomfort, and cross-country skiing

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

correlations ( r  = −.71) have been found between VO 2 max and HRV recovery time following cross-country ski racing. 4 However, HRV return to preexercise levels was 60 to 90 minutes slower following 3 × 6 minutes of running at 95% to 100% VO 2 max in trained (60 mL·kg·min −1 ·VO 2 max) compared with highly

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Lukas Höllrigl, Christian Raschner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

perceived exertion stays the same . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2007 ; 101 ( 6 ): 771 – 781 . doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0458-z 17909845 10.1007/s00421-007-0458-z 20. Hauser A , Zinner C , Born DP , Wehrlin JP , Sperlich B . Does hyperoxic recovery during cross-country skiing team sprints enhance