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Robert Schinke and Zella E. Moore

Sport psychologists work with athletes from a vast array of cultural backgrounds. Numerous factors comprise the cultural composition of both the client and the practitioner, including, though not necessarily limited to, ethnicity, socioeconomic background and status, race, socialization, sexual orientation, religion, gender, and geographic location. These intersecting and often deeply ingrained personal variables can certainly impact the nature of the therapeutic relationship, intervention strategies, and intervention outcomes with athletic clientele. Yet, while other domains of professional psychology have long embraced the integration of cultural aspects, the field of sport psychology has been slow to join the dialogue or to learn from these relevant sources. Therefore, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology was conceptualized and constructed with the intention of opening these lines of discussion to help ensure that sport psychologists are gaining a comprehensive understanding of the athletes with whom they work, demonstrating respect for and integration of cultural constructs in the treatment room, and maintaining personal and professional self-awareness. As Co-Editors of this unique special issue, Drs. Robert Schinke and Zella Moore provide the present paper to begin this important dialogue. This paper sets the stage for six informative articles by leading professionals in their areas, including both theoretical articles and articles highlighting culturally informed direct service provision with athletes from around the world. We hope that this timely special issue leads to numerous additional questions, cutting-edge research ideas, and most importantly, an enhanced or renewed commitment from sport psychologists to integrate the concepts found within these pages, and those already found within the professional literature of mainstream psychology, into their daily work with athletes.

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Blandine Bril

Do cultural environments influence motor skills? Are there “motor styles” common to members of a given cultural group? While anthropology has for a long time focused on the different ways in which people move their bodies, why should this diversity be of interest to understand motor skills and

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John B. Bartholomew and Sherri L. Sanders

cuts, the desire for greater diversity and inclusion, or programmatic emphasis. These changes are often strongly resisted by faculty and, again, require the timely and skillful management of the leader. This paper focuses on the role of the department chair in managing challenging faculty and

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Diane M. Culver, Erin Kraft, Cari Din and Isabelle Cayer

coaching and other leadership roles in sport. Moreover, there continues to be minimal literature examining the implementation and evaluation of initiatives for women in sport leadership. The Alberta Women in Sport Leadership Impact Program (AWiSL) aims to increase gender equity and leadership diversity in

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Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock and Mary E. Rudisill

be valued and supported in their endeavors and roles. Leaders who prioritize inclusive excellence position diversity, inclusion, and equity at the heart of their unit’s strategic vision because they are deemed critical to achieving a unit’s mission and goals and demonstrating academic excellence

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Bert Hayslip Jr., Daniel Weigand, Robert Weinberg, Peggy Richardson and Allen Jackson

The present investigation reports on the reliability and validity of several scales derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM). Both their internal consistency and their ability to predict self-reported sport and physical activity participation among younger and older adults are examined. As an exploratory endeavor, new, internally consistent scales were developed to assess several HBM factors. Results of age-group comparisons as well as comparisons across levels of diversity in several types of self-reported physical activity suggest that the newly developed measures differentiate between individuals on the basis of age and degrees of diversity in activity.

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Lisa M. Van Landuyt, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello

Traditional conceptions of the exercise–affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean ratings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise–affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan

A group of students from the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts participated in a mental skills training program that focused on goal setting, self-confidence development, and team building. There were 13 two-hour sessions held over a 20-week period. The participants, cultural issues, and the basic structure of the program are described. The author’s observations regarding competition, displays of affection, collective values, and the importance of family and nature are provided. The participants qualitatively evaluated the program. Conclusions related to group process, program structure, and diversity are presented. These conclusions should be of value in terms of shaping future group mental skills training programs.

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Norah M. Nelson and Catherine B. Woods

Background:

Active commuting (AC) to school can increase daily minutes of physical activity yet research is lacking on its determinants. This study examined perceptions of the physical environment as a correlate of AC among adolescents.

Methods:

Cross-sectional data were collected from 1143 males and 1016 females (mean age 16.04 ± 0.66) who lived within 2.5 miles of their school. Participants’ self-reported active (walk or cycle) or inactive (car, bus, or train) mode of travel to school and perceptions of their neighborhood environment. Bivariate logistic regression examined perceived environmental features associated with active versus inactive modes, adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Significant variables were examined in multivariate models, adjusted for population density and distance.

Results:

Positive correlates of AC included well-lit streets, land-use-mix diversity, access to shops/public transport, the presence of public parks/bike lanes, and accessible well-maintained paths. Connectivity was unrelated to mode choice. In multivariate analyses, land-use-mix diversity, and the perceived presence of public parks remained significant among males, whereas excess traffic speed, shops within walking distance, and paths separate from the road remained significant among females.

Conclusions:

Environmental characteristics were associated with active commuting to school, however research must address methodological issues before making recommendations for intervention.

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Delfien Van Dyck, Lieze Mertens, Greet Cardon, Katrien De Cocker and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB)and their determinants, and about recently retired adults’ needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a ‘forgotten group’ and therefore having too few tailored PA initiatives available. Furthermore, participants were not aware of the negative health effects of SB and not motivated to decrease their SB. Concerning new PA interventions, very diverse ideas were put forward, reflecting the diversity of the target group. It seems that a dynamic intervention in which participants can choose which PA type they want to increase is preferable for recently retired adults.