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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

function may affect postural control 2 and gait patterns in patients with ACLD. Decreased gait variability is one of the features of gait dysfunction in patients with ACLD. 3 The effect of ACLD on gait stability has been examined in relation to gait speed and dual tasking (DT). It has been suggested that

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Sabrine N. Costa, Edgar R. Vieira and Paulo C. B. Bento

the isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems Inc., Shirley, NY) was performed to reduce possible learning effects. On the second day, the participants dual-task gait and dominant lower-limb isokinetic strength were tested. After that, the participants received activity monitors to wear for seven

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

speed, but no improvements in obstacle negotiation under single- or dual-task conditions following group balance training or group balance plus cognitive training in older adults ( Plummer-D’Amato et al., 2012 ). The training program involved balance, gait, and agility stations, and the cognitive

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Ângela Fernandes, Andreia S. P. Sousa, Nuno Rocha and João Manuel R. S. Tavares

The aim of this study was to compare postural control strategies during gait initiation in single- and dual-task conditions in individuals in early stages of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The activation timing of tibialis anterior occurred significantly later in the individuals with PD than in the controls (p = .05), and a significant interaction between the groups, conditions and limbs was found (p = .027). Differences between the single- and dual-task conditions were observed for the activation timing of the tibialis anterior (p = .042) and for the magnitude of soleus (p = .007), with lower values for the dual-task condition. Furthermore, not all the individuals followed the previously reported pattern of soleus inhibition followed by tibialis anterior activation. The duration of the mediolateral displacement of the center of pressure was longer in the individuals with PD than in the controls (p = .019). The anticipatory postural adjustments during gait initiation are impaired in PD and are expressed by an activation failure of tibialis anterior in both single- and dual-task conditions. Hence, it is important that during rehabilitation, intervention should concentrate on the tibialis anterior TA.

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Madeleine E. Hackney, Courtney D. Hall, Katharina V. Echt and Steven L. Wolf

Evidence-based recommendations for interventions to reduce fall risk in older adults with visual impairment are lacking. Adapted tango dance (Tango) and a balance and mobility program (FallProof) have improved mobility, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with movement impairment. This study compared the efficacy of Tango and FallProof for 32 individuals with visual impairment (age: M = 79.3, SD =11 [51–95 years]). Participants were assigned to Tango or FallProof to complete twenty, 90-min lessons within 12 weeks. Participants underwent assessment of balance, dual-tasking, endurance, gait, and vision-related QOL. The balance reactions of participants in both groups improved (p < .001). Endurance, cognitive dual-tasking, and vision-related QOL may have improved more for Tango than FallProof. Group differences and gains were maintained across time. Both programs could be effective options for motor rehabilitation for older adults with visual impairment because they may improve mobility and QOL while reducing fall risk.

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Robin C. Jackson, Kelly J. Ashford and Glen Norsworthy

Attentional processes governing skilled motor behavior were examined in two studies. In Experiment 1, field hockey players performed a dribbling task under single-task, dual-task, and skill-focused conditions under both low and high pressure situations. In Experiment 2, skilled soccer players performed a dribbling task under single-task, skill-focused, and process-goal conditions, again under low and high pressure situations. Results replicated recent findings regarding the detrimental effect of skill-focused attention and the facilitative effect of dual-task conditions on skilled performance. In addition, focusing on movement related process goals was found to adversely affect performance. Support for the predictive validity of the Reinvestment Scale was also found, with high reinvesters displaying greater susceptibility to skill failure under pressure. Results were consistent with explicit monitoring theories of choking and are further discussed in light of the conceptual distinction between explicit monitoring and reinvestment of conscious control.

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Neha Malhotra, Jamie M. Poolton, Mark R. Wilson, Liis Uiga and Rich S.W. Masters

Two experiments examined the roles of the dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment (movement selfconsciousness and conscious motor processing) on performance under demanding conditions. In Experiment 1, novice golfers practiced a golf putting task and were tested under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Conscious motor processing was not associated with putting proficiency or movement variability; however, movement self-consciousness was positively associated with putting proficiency and appeared to be negatively associated with variability of impact velocity in low-anxiety conditions, but not in high-anxiety conditions. Increased anxiety and effort possibly left few attention resources for movement self-consciousness under high anxiety. In Experiment 2, participants performed a quiet standing task in single- and dual-task conditions. Movement self-consciousness was positively associated with performance when attention demands were low (single task) but not when attention demands were high (dual task). The findings provide insight into the differential influence of the two dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment under demanding conditions.

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Matthieu M. de Wit, Rich S.W. Masters and John van der Kamp

Based upon evidence that vision for action has quicker access to visual information than vision for perception, we hypothesized that the two systems may have differentiated visual thresholds. There is also evidence that, unlike vision for perception, vision for action is insensitive to cognitive dual-task interference. Using visual masking, we determined the visual thresholds of 15 participants in a perception task, an action task and an action plus concurrent cognitive secondary task. There was no difference in threshold between the perception task and the action task, but the action plus concurrent secondary task was accompanied by a greater visual threshold than both the perception task and the action task alone, indicating dual-task interference. The action task was thus most likely informed by vision for perception. The implications of these results are reviewed in the context of recent discussions of the two visual systems model.

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Roee Holtzer, Cuiling Wang and Joe Verghese

The current study critically assessed the relationship between cognitive functions and gait in nondemented older adults. Quantitative measures of gait (velocity, cadence, and a coefficient of variance in stride length) were assessed in single and dual-task conditions. Three cognitive factors captured the domains of Executive Attention, Verbal IQ, and Memory. Linear regressions showed that Executive Attention was related to velocity in both walking conditions. However, Memory and Verbal IQ were also related to velocity. Memory was related to Cadence in both walking conditions. Executive Attention was related to the coefficient of variance in stride length in both walking conditions. Linear mixed effects models showed that dual-task costs were largest in velocity followed by cadence and the coefficient of variance in stride length. The relationship between cognitive functions and gait depends, in part, on the analytic approach used, gait parameters assessed, and walking condition.

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Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Stephanie A. Bridenbaugh, Ralf Roth, Martin Soltermann, Reto W. Kressig and Lukas Zahner

This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale—International [FES–I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65–85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES–I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES–I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ηp 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults.