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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

Aging is a physiological process that adversely affects most biological functions and results in reduced resistance to cellular stress. Furthermore, aging is characterized by an increased production of free radicals in several tissues, which might promote systemic cellular apoptosis followed by

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

exercise performance . Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 98 , 144 – 158 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 Cochran , A.J. , Myslik , F. , MacInnis , M.J. , Percival , M.E. , Bishop , D. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Gibala , M.J. ( 2015

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

oxidative damage in road cycling . Free Radic Res . 2002 ; 36 : 247 – 253 . PubMed doi:10.1080/10715760290019255 10.1080/10715760290019255 12071342 12. Foster C , Hoyos J , Earnest C , Lucía A . Regulation of energy expenditure during prolonged athletic competition . Med Sci Sports Exerc

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Nathan A. Lewis, Andrew J. Simpkin, Sarah Moseley, Gareth Turner, Mark Homer, Ann Redgrave, Charles R. Pedlar and Richard Burden

oxidative stress . Int J Sports Med . 2014 ; 35 ( 1 ): 8 – 13 . PubMed ID: 23839729 23839729 8. Margonis K , Fatouros IG , Jamurtas AZ , et al . Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis . Free Radic Biol Med . 2007 ; 43 ( 6 ): 901 – 910

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Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer

. Free Radic Biol Med . 2001 ; 31 ( 7 ): 911 – 922 . PubMed ID: 11585710 doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00667-0 10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00667-0 11585710 34. Mrakic-Sposta S , Gussoni M , Moretti S , et al . Effects of mountain ultra-marathon running on ROS production and oxidative damage by micro

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Emma M. Crum, Matthew J. Barnes and Stephen R. Stannard

. ( 2005 ). Apples increase nitric oxide production by human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: A new biological function for polyphenols with a catechol group? Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 39 ( 5 ), 668 – 681 . PubMed ID: 16085185 doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.04.021 10.1016/j

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

. , van Blerk , C. , … Jackson , S.K. ( 2003 ). Exercise-induced endotoxemia: The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation . Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 35 ( 3 ), 284 – 291 . PubMed ID: 12885590 doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(03)00309-5 10.1016/S0891-5849(03)00309-5 Bate , J.P. , Irving , P

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

system is provided by essential micronutrient compounds ( Sies & Stahl, 1995 ). Carotenoids such as lycopene exert antioxidant functions, such as quenching of singlet oxygen species and the inhibition of free-radical reactions. Although human evidence is absent at the tissue level, oxidative damage from

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Guillaume P. Ducrocq, Thomas J. Hureau, Olivier Meste and Grégory M. Blain

mechanisms related to prolonged low-frequency force depression (eg, free radicals accumulation and/or muscle damage) have mainly contributed to the observed failure of the excitation–contraction coupling. 33 , 43 The absence of any increase in the ground contact time or any reduction in power output, jump

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Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 98 , 144 – 158 . PubMed ID: 26855422 doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016 Dirks-Naylor , A.J. ( 2015 ). The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle . Life Sciences, 143 , 182 – 186 . PubMed ID: 26546720 doi:10.1016/j