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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

intake during a competitive event. Fluid choices during exercise should consider substrate requirements, electrolyte content, palatability, and access. Despite previous concern about delayed gastric emptying associated with the addition of solutes to an exercise beverage, carbohydrate-containing drinks

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert and Louise M. Burke

were given 5 min to consume 20 g of the supplement dissolved in 300 ml of warm water. To standardize gastric emptying, no further fluid was allowed for 60 min after the supplement ingestion and no food was consumed or exercise performed for 3 hr, after which, the participants returned to their normal

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Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

“ileal brake” mechanism to attenuate gastric emptying and orocaecal transit. This involves neural and hormonal negative feedback signals from the terminal ileum and proximal colon targeting the stomach and duodenum ( Shin et al., 2013 ). Of practical and performance relevance, considering the gastric

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

to a delay in gastric emptying ( De Oliveira et al., 2014 ; Jeukendrup, 2017 ). General protein intake guidelines for athletes recommend 1.2–2.0 g/kg per day ( Egan, 2016 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). In the present study, protein intake was at the higher end of these guidelines. A high protein intake

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

correlated with reductions in performance. Although digested slowly in the small intestine, gastric emptying for modified AMY-7 has been reported to be similar to other maltodextrins ( Severijnen et al., 2007 ). Confirming previous findings ( Johannsen & Sharp, 2007 ), subjects in the present study did not

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Tiago Turnes, Rogério S.O. Cruz, Fabrizio Caputo and Rafael A. De Aguiar

Furthermore, caution is required when coingesting caffeine with a pretest meal, which may slow gastric emptying and delay caffeine absorption. 10 Another popular substance is sodium bicarbonate, which is an effective exogenous buffer causing preexercise alkalosis and buffering the accumulation of H + during

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

temperature, and the composition as well as the speed of gastric emptying. However, it can be relatively short (∼6 h) provided all recommendations are fulfilled. 35 Another parameter of the cardiovascular system that can be altered after training or competition is the maximal excitability of the autonomic

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Campbell Menzies, Michael Wood, Joel Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Robbie Jones, Kostas Tsintzas, Javier T. Gonzalez and James A. Betts

performance; for instance, the timecourse of gastric emptying ( Jeukendrup & Jentjens, 2000 ), and thus temporal variance in the availability of systemic metabolites, including glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; Fielding et al., 1985 ; McConell et al., 1996 ; Schweitzer et al., 2009 ), which can

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

; Watson et al., 2008 ). It has been proposed that greater retention of milk or chocolate milk compared to sports drinks and other recovery beverages may be due to its macronutrient content and resultant differences in gastric emptying, or may be related to the higher potassium content ( Watson et

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

.1097/00005768-200108000-00019 Leiper , J.B. ( 2015 ). Fate of ingested fluids: Factors affecting gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of beverages in humans . Nutrition Reviews, 73 ( Suppl. 2 ), 57 – 72 . doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 10.1093/nutrit/nuv032 Lopez , R.M. , Casa , D.J. , Jensen , K.A. , Stearns , R