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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

original sample, addressing the potential bias from differential loss to follow-up. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to estimate the association of age with MVPA over the 15 years of follow-up. To allow for potential nonlinearity of the association, age was modeled as a 5-level categorical

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Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio and David Barbado

specific sport training induces specific core stability adaptations, which were only revealed through specific tests. These findings suggest core stability outcomes are not generalizable, but are highly dependent on the conditions in which they are measured (ie, dynamic/static, 1-/2-dimensional, etc) and

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Yuri Alberto Freire, Geovani de Araújo Dantas de Macêdo, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Ágnes Denise de Lima Bezerra, Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Kevin F. Boreskie, Todd A. Duhamel and Eduardo Caldas Costa

. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare the energy expenditure and energy intake in the day before the experimental sessions, the energy and water intake during the sessions, and AUC-BP, iAUC-glucose, and iAUC-triglycerides among the experimental sessions. Baseline values of BP, glucose, and

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

the analysis: 30 GA were lost, 19 GA malfunctioned, 10 participants’ data were dropped due to processing issues, and 2 participants did not complete the protocol. Analyses used a 3-level mixed-effects generalized linear model in which daily sedentary time, MVPA, and VPA were separately regressed on

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Grace C. Bellinger, Kristen A. Pickett and Andrea H. Mason

Limbs Although some individuals demonstrated a preference for one single support phase or an avoidance of the other, during the initiation of intentional reach, there does not appear to be a pattern generalizable to all healthy right-handed young adults, regardless of the distance to the target (Figure

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Gabriela Souza de Vasconcelos, Anelize Cini and Cláudia Silveira Lima

submitted to the Shapiro–Wilk test to verify their normality. The independent t test was used to compare the characterization variables of the sample. For the analysis of the variables in the different moments (pre, post, and 3 mo) and between the groups (intervention and control), the generalized

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Brendan H. Lazarus, William G. Hopkins, Andrew M. Stewart and Robert J. Aughey

, similar, heavier, and heaviest; and shortest, shorter, similar, taller, and tallest. Statistical Analysis The logistic-regression version of the generalized mixed linear model (Proc Glimmix) in the Statistical Analysis System (version 9.4, SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used to estimate the effect of each

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Koren L. Fisher, Bruce A. Reeder, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Nigel L. Ashworth, Punam Pahwa, Nazmi Sari, M. Suzanne Sheppard, Christopher A. Shields and Karen E. Chad

( Reeder et al., 2008 ). The focus of the present analysis is a longitudinal examination of changes observed from baseline to 12 months. Each outcome measure was analyzed separately using multivariable statistical models based on the generalized estimating equation approach ( Liang & Zeger, 1986 ; Twisk

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Tara K. Scanlan and Rebecca Lewthwaite

This field study examined predictors of generalized and specific performance expectancies for 76 male wrestlers, ages 9 to 14 years, who participated in the first two rounds of a competitive wrestling tournament. Generalized expectancies were defined as the participants' overall expectancies for successful performance. Specific expectancies were operationalized by asking wrestlers to indicate how sure they were about winning each of their first two tournament matches. High generalized expectancies were predicted by high self-esteem, greater outcome success in the preceding tournament, and boys' perceptions of (a) greater parental and coach satisfaction with their season's performance and (b) a lack of noncontingent performance reactions by their parents. Then high generalized expectancies, along with high perceived wrestling ability and perceptions of greater adult satisfaction with the season's performance, predicted high specific expectancies for the first tournament round. High specific expectancies for the second round were predicted by high generalized expectancies and high perceived wrestling ability. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for a nomological network of wrestlers' specific performance expectancies.

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Moslem Bahmani, Jed A. Diekfuss, Robabeh Rostami, Nasim Ataee and Farhad Ghadiri

performance and learning. This framework, however, is mostly derived from research examining novice individuals. Our study was conducted using international shooters to explore the generalizability of some predictions of OPTIMAL theory to a population of highly skilled individuals. According to OPTIMAL theory