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Tatsuya Daikoku, Yuji Takahashi, Nagayoshi Tarumoto and Hideki Yasuda

auditory beat and its metrical hierarchy in perception and imagery . Journal of Neuroscience, 35 , 15187 – 15198 . PubMed doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2397-15.2015 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2397-15.2015 Fujioka , T. , Trainor , L.J. , Large , E.W. , & Ross , B. ( 2012 ). Internalized timing of isochronous

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Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula

imagery of locomotor-related tasks: a PET study . Hum Brain Mapp . 2003 ; 19 : 47 – 62 . PubMed ID: 12731103 doi:10.1002/hbm.10103 12731103 10.1002/hbm.10103 25. Fait P , Swaine B , Cantin J-F , Leblond J , McFadyen BJ . Altered integrated locomotor and cognitive function in elite

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms and Randy Schmitz

, et al . Functional activity mapping of the perirolandic cortex during motor performance and motor imagery . In: Pavone P , Rossi P eds. Functional MRI (Bracco Education in Diagnostic Imaging). Springer Milan ; 1996 : 49 – 51 . doi:10.1007/978-88-470-2194-5_11 10

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Francesca Genoese, Shelby E. Baez, Nicholas Heebner, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

outcomes, such as VMRT, in individuals post-ACLR and warrant further intervention strategies. Common psychosocial intervention strategies used in clinical practice include patient education, imagery, goal setting, relaxation, self-talk, and graded exposure. 32 However, It is important to acknowledge that

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

neurofeedback for optimum performance . Biofeedback, 34, 79 – 81 . Wilson , V.E. , Thompson , M. , Thompson , L. , & Peper , E. ( 2011 ). Using EEG for enhancing performance: Arousal, attention, self talk, and imagery . In Biofeedback & neurofeedback applications in sport psychology . (pp.  175

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

times. Soccer (Kinect Sports Season 1) Return to play imagery Moderate Soccer game lasting 5 min. While on offense player must quickly decide where to pass the ball before the defense steals it. Defensively, players must try to deflect passes by stepping into the passing lane. Automatically switches to

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Jeffrey J. Martin and Laurie A. Malone

Although sport psychologists have started to examine elite disability sport, studies of comprehensive mental skill use are rare. In the current study, we examined multidimensional imagery and self-talk, as well as comprehensive mental skills (i.e., coping with adversity, goal setting, concentration, peaking under pressure, being coachable, confident, and feeling free from worry). In addition to descriptive data, we also were interested in the ability of athlete’s mental skills to predict engagement (e.g., being dedicated). Fourteen elite level wheelchair rugby players from the United States participated, and results indicated that athletes employed most mental skills. We accounted for 50% of the variance in engagement with comprehensive mental skills (β = .72, p = .03) contributing the most to the regression equation, while imagery (β = -.02, p = .94) and self-talk (β = -.00, p = .99) were not significant. Athletes who reported using a host of mental skills (e.g., coping with adversity) also reported being engaged (e.g., dedicated, enthused, committed) to wheelchair rugby. Athletes reporting minimal mental skill use were less engaged.

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Paul J. McCarthy, Marc V. Jones, Chris G. Harwood and Steve Olivier

One reason sport psychologists teach psychological skills is to enhance performance in sport; but the value of psychological skills for young athletes is questionable because of the qualitative and quantitative differences between children and adults in their understanding of abstract concepts such as mental skills. To teach these skills effectively to young athletes, sport psychologists need to appreciate what young athletes implicitly understand about such skills because maturational (e.g., cognitive, social) and environmental (e.g., coaches) factors can influence the progressive development of children and youth. In the present qualitative study, we explored young athletes’ (aged 10–15 years) understanding of four basic psychological skills: goal setting, mental imagery, self-talk, and relaxation. Young athletes (n= 118: 75 males and 43 females) completed an open-ended questionnaire to report their understanding of these four basic psychological skills. Compared with the older youth athletes, the younger youth athletes were less able to explain the meaning of each psychological skill. Goal setting and mental imagery were better understood than self-talk and relaxation. Based on these fndings, sport psychologists should consider adapting interventions and psychoeducational programs to match young athletes’ age and developmental level.

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Denise M. Hill, Sheldon Hanton, Nic Matthews and Scott Fleming

This study explores the antecedents, mechanisms, influencing variables, and consequences of choking in sport and identifies interventions that may alleviate choking. Through the use of qualitative methods, the experiences of six elite golfers who choked frequently under pressure were examined and compared with five elite golfers who excelled frequently under pressure. The perspectives of four coaches who had worked extensively with elite golfers who had choked and excelled, were also considered. The study indicated that the participants choked as a result of distraction, which was caused by various stressors. Self-confidence, preparation, and perfectionism were identified as key influencing variables of the participants’ choking episodes, and the consequence of choking was a significant drop in performance that affected negatively future performances. Process goals, cognitive restructuring, imagery, simulated training, and a pre/postshot routine were perceived as interventions that may possibly prevent choking.

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Joanne Perry, Ashley Hansen, Michael Ross, Taylor Montgomery and Jeremiah Weinstock

task included a negative sport imagery task that instructed athletes to identify and silently reflect upon a sport experience that was challenging. Similarly, athletes were given 90 seconds to use mental coping strategies following the end of this task. See Table  1 for a detailed outline of the