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Jeffrey J. Martin

sports that can be done alone (e.g., running). While there are social benefits to sport, feeling a sense of freedom and independence, which can be experienced alone or with others in sport, is also valued, as I discuss next. Freedom and Independence So I thought, this is my opportunity to be away from

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Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

Strength training is one of the most common interventions employed to increase functional independence during the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) 1 , 2 and is considered essential for this purpose. 3 Previous studies have demonstrated that strength training is capable

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

regular PA Benefits of PA Avoiding depression Preventing physical decline and maintaining independence Perceived Barriers to Meeting PA Guidelines There were three important health-related barriers that limited PA engagement across the sample including: aging and illness, different physical abilities

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Caroline S. Blaum, Tisha Moore, Roger Brown, Andrzej Galecki, Debra Strasburg, Shu Chen and Neil B. Alexander

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing epidemic for older adults, affecting 1 in 4 of those aged 65 years and older. 1 Diabetes-related disability occurs in up to two-thirds of older adults with T2DM and is associated with loss of independence, poor quality of life, and increased utilization

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

). Tests within these batteries are linked to health outcomes, physical independence, mortality, and overall quality of life ( Corsonello et al., 2012 ; Rikli & Jones, 2001 ; Smee, Anson, Waddington, & Berry, 2012 ; Volpato et al., 2011 ). Similar to the limitations of youth assessments, functional

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Karin Hesseberg, Hege Bentzen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal and Astrid Bergland

Maintenance of physical activity and good physical fitness is important for functional independence. This study had two aims: examine the physical fitness level in older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and examine the relationship between the components of physical fitness and cognitive domains in this group. The cross-sectional study included community-living older people ≥ 65 years of age with MCI or dementia. Physical fitness and cognition were assessed using the Senior Fitness Test and five cognitive tests. Most of the participants scored below the criteria for maintaining physical independence in later years. There were significant associations between the components of physical fitness and cognition, except flexibility. Declines in executive function were most related to declines in physical fitness. These factors should receive more attention in people with MCI and dementia because they risk losing independence.

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Donna L. Goodwin and Kerri Staples

The purpose of the study was to capture the meaning of segregated summer camp experiences to youths with disabilities. The experiences of nine youths with physical, sensory, or behavioral disabilities between the ages of 14 and 19 were captured using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, document review, and field notes. Mothers’ perceptions were also gathered. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: not alone, independence, and a chance to discover. Camp experiences provided a reprieve from perceptions of disability isolation often felt in their home communities. The campers experienced increased self-reliance, independence, and new understandings of their physical potential. The findings are discussed within the context of identity development and therapeutic landscapes.

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

Sit-to-stand (STS) movement and its reverse, which are considered fundamental prerequisites for daily activities and functional independence, are repeated many times throughout the day. 1 , 2 Hughes et al 3 reported that STS is the most frequently performed functional activity in daily life. This

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Jean M. Williams

Identification of psychological and perceptual variables which cause one athlete to be more successful than another may enable coaches to initially better select those individuals who might ultimately have the greatest prospect for success within a given sport. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether a relationship exists between fencing ability and psychological differentiation, as measured by a test of field dependence-independence. Because differentiating the movement of one's body and analytically diagnosing the events during a bout are critical to fencing success, it was hypothesized that higher skilled, classified fencers (N = 26) would be more field independent (as measured by a rod and frame test) than less skilled, unclassified fencers (N = 20). The results were significant and in the hypothesized direction (p < .001). There were no significant differences for age, number of years fenced, and educational background. It was concluded that any assessment of fencing potential should include a rod and frame test to measure field dependence-independence.

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Mojca Doupona Topič and Jay Coakley

Sociology of sport knowledge on national identity is grounded in research that focuses primarily on long established nation-states with widely known histories. The relationship between sport and national identity in postsocialist/Soviet/colonial nations that have gained independence or sovereignty since 1990 has seldom been studied. This paper examines the role of sports in the formation of national identity in postsocialist Slovenia, a nation-state that gained independence in 1990. Our analysis focuses on the recent context in which the current but fluid relationship between sport and Slovenian national identity exists. Using Slovenia as a case study we identify seven factors that may moderate the effectiveness of sports as sites for establishing and maintaining national identity and making successful global identity claims in the twenty-first century. We conclude that these factors should be taken into account to more fully understand the sport-national identity relationship today, especially in new and developing nations.