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Jeffrey J. Martin

sports that can be done alone (e.g., running). While there are social benefits to sport, feeling a sense of freedom and independence, which can be experienced alone or with others in sport, is also valued, as I discuss next. Freedom and Independence So I thought, this is my opportunity to be away from

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Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

Strength training is one of the most common interventions employed to increase functional independence during the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) 1 , 2 and is considered essential for this purpose. 3 Previous studies have demonstrated that strength training is capable

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Diana Castaneda-Gameros, Sabi Redwood and Janice L. Thompson

regular PA Benefits of PA Avoiding depression Preventing physical decline and maintaining independence Perceived Barriers to Meeting PA Guidelines There were three important health-related barriers that limited PA engagement across the sample including: aging and illness, different physical abilities

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Caroline S. Blaum, Tisha Moore, Roger Brown, Andrzej Galecki, Debra Strasburg, Shu Chen and Neil B. Alexander

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing epidemic for older adults, affecting 1 in 4 of those aged 65 years and older. 1 Diabetes-related disability occurs in up to two-thirds of older adults with T2DM and is associated with loss of independence, poor quality of life, and increased utilization

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

). Tests within these batteries are linked to health outcomes, physical independence, mortality, and overall quality of life ( Corsonello et al., 2012 ; Rikli & Jones, 2001 ; Smee, Anson, Waddington, & Berry, 2012 ; Volpato et al., 2011 ). Similar to the limitations of youth assessments, functional

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Emily Budzynski-Seymour, Rebecca Conway, Matthew Wade, Alex Lucas, Michelle Jones, Steve Mann and James Steele

education after school and further education. 9 The transition to higher education is associated with increased independence over lifestyle and dietary habits. 10 Yet, it is relatively uncommon for students to consider the long-term risk of developing chronic diseases when making behavior choices, 7

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Karin Hesseberg, Hege Bentzen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal and Astrid Bergland

Maintenance of physical activity and good physical fitness is important for functional independence. This study had two aims: examine the physical fitness level in older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and examine the relationship between the components of physical fitness and cognitive domains in this group. The cross-sectional study included community-living older people ≥ 65 years of age with MCI or dementia. Physical fitness and cognition were assessed using the Senior Fitness Test and five cognitive tests. Most of the participants scored below the criteria for maintaining physical independence in later years. There were significant associations between the components of physical fitness and cognition, except flexibility. Declines in executive function were most related to declines in physical fitness. These factors should receive more attention in people with MCI and dementia because they risk losing independence.

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Donna L. Goodwin and Kerri Staples

The purpose of the study was to capture the meaning of segregated summer camp experiences to youths with disabilities. The experiences of nine youths with physical, sensory, or behavioral disabilities between the ages of 14 and 19 were captured using the phenomenological methods of semistructured interviews, document review, and field notes. Mothers’ perceptions were also gathered. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: not alone, independence, and a chance to discover. Camp experiences provided a reprieve from perceptions of disability isolation often felt in their home communities. The campers experienced increased self-reliance, independence, and new understandings of their physical potential. The findings are discussed within the context of identity development and therapeutic landscapes.

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

Sit-to-stand (STS) movement and its reverse, which are considered fundamental prerequisites for daily activities and functional independence, are repeated many times throughout the day. 1 , 2 Hughes et al 3 reported that STS is the most frequently performed functional activity in daily life. This

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Lauriece L. Zittel and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an integrated physical education setting on the motor performance of preschool children with developmental delays. Subjects participated in segregated and integrated physical education classes and were observed practicing locomotor and object control skills. The quality of performance was analyzed to determine the number of critical elements present and the level of teacher or peer prompt required to initiate and complete each performance. A single-subject reversal design (A-B-A-B) was used. Four children with developmental delays were filmed within an 8-week school schedule while practicing two fundamental gross motor skills during segregated and integrated conditions. The results provide evidence that children with developmental delays are able to maintain their level of gross motor skill and independence within an integrated physical education setting. Although day-to-day variability was calculated for each subject, overall skill level remained stable and level of independence was not compromised in the integrated setting.