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Caroline Lisee, Melanie L. McGrath, Christopher Kuenze, Ming Zhang, Matt Salzler, Jeffrey B. Driban and Matthew S. Harkey

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by declining synovial joint health, especially in the articular cartilage. 1 Clinically feasible assessments of early articular cartilage changes may overcome the barriers of technically demanding or expensive biomarkers and encourage implementation of

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Laura C. Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G. Thelen and Lennart Scheys

, though with some differences between results. 22 , 23 However, it remains unknown whether nonuniform deformation also occurs in the patellar tendon during passive motion. Such information would provide important insight into the normal passive biomechanics of the knee joint, which is critical to our

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Erik H. Arve, Emily Madrak and Aric J. Warren

Clinical Scenario Knee injuries are one of the most prevalent pathologies in sport. While some knee injuries may be treated conservatively, others may require complex surgical procedures resulting in extended time away from sport and physical activity. Reconstructions of the anterior cruciate

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Robert L. Barrack, Peter J. Lund and Harry B. Skinner

Extensive histological studies have now confirmed a definite link between the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the central nervous system. Preliminary histological evidence indicates that this neurological connection may be restored following reconstruction utilizing a free graft. In spite of this apparent graft reinnervation, clinical studies indicate that proprioception in the reconstructed knee probably remains inferior to that of the contralateral normal knee. A number of abnormalities of gait, reflexes, and muscle firing patterns have been discovered following an ACL tear. The degree to which a successful repair or reconstruction corrects these abnormalities remains uncertain, but again it appears that some abnormalities remain even during normal walking. Increased activity of the hamstrings as well as of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius seems to be an adaptive mechanism to stabilize the knee after ACL injury. These muscle firing patterns seem to be trainable to some degree and should be incorporated into postinjury and postsurgical rehabilitation protocols.

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Susana Meireles, Neil D. Reeves, Richard K. Jones, Colin R. Smith, Darryl G. Thelen and Ilse Jonkers

Stair negotiation and level walking are common activities of daily living. However, stair negotiation is biomechanically more challenging, 1 demanding a higher range of motion in the lower extremity, 2 higher moments acting at the knee joint, 3 – 5 and, consequently, increased quadriceps demands

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David J. Pezzullo, James J. Irrgang and Susan L. Whitney

Patellar tendonitis is a common pathology seen in athletes involved in activities requiring forceful eccentric muscle contractions or repeated flexion and extension of the knee. This article reviews the related anatomy, biomechanics, mechanism of injury, and diagnosis of patellar tendonitis. It also presents several treatment approaches and suggestions to help identify athletes at risk.

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Brian D. Street and William Gage

Total knee replacement (TKR) is the most common surgical intervention for moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), reducing pain and activity limitations, as well as improving functional ability. 1 – 5 However, although improved from presurgical levels, persistent deficits in functional

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Mastour S. Alshaharani, Everett B. Lohman, Khaled Bahjri, Travis Harp, Mansoor Alameri, Hatem Jaber and Noha S. Daher

all medical care visits attributed to this condition. 2 Females are 2.23 times more likely to be diagnosed with PFPS, 3 and this gender difference is thought to be a result of females having a wider pelvis, which may alter lower-extremity kinematics. It is often referred to as “runner’s knee

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Kenneth C. Lam and Jessica G. Markbreiter

Knee injuries are common in interscholastic sports and account for 15.2% of all reported sport-related injuries. 1 , 2 Although ankle sprains are the most commonly reported sport-related injury, 3 knee injuries account for the largest percentage of severe injuries (ie, an injury that causes more

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

The onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis have been attributed to abnormal loading of the knee joint. 1 – 3 Clinical interventions, both surgical and noninvasive, aim to reduce medial compartment knee loads. 4 – 6 Gait retraining is a noninvasive intervention in the treatment of