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Graeme I. Lancaster, Roy L.P.G. Jentjens, Luke Moseley, Asker E. Jeukendrup and Michael Gleeson

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on circulating leukocyte numbers, plasma interleukin (IL)-6, plasma cortisol, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated neutrophil degranulation responses in moderately trained male cyclists who completed approximately 1-h of high-intensity cycling. The influence of the timing of pre-exercise CHO ingestion was investigated in 8 subjects who consumed 75 g CHO as a glucose solution at either 15 (–15 trial), or 75 (–75 trial) min before the onset of exercise. The influence of the amount of pre-exercise CHO ingestion was investigated in a further 10 subjects who consumed either 25 g or 200 g CHO as a glucose solution or a placebo 45 min before the onset of exercise. At the onset of exercise in the timing experiment, the plasma glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) lower on the –75 trial compared with pre-drink values, and the plasma cortisol concentration and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) ratio were significantly (p < .05) elevated in the post-exercise period. In the –15 trial, plasma glucose concentration was well maintained, and the plasma cortisol concentration and N/L ratio were not significantly elevated above resting levels. However, LPS-stimulated neutrophil degranulation was similar in the –15 and –75 trials. The amount of CHO ingested had no effect on the magnitude of the rise in the N/L ratio compared with placebo when consumed 45 min pre-exercise. Finally, although an exercise-induced increase in the plasma IL-6 concentration was observed, this effect was independent of pre-exercise CHO ingestion.

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Manuela Konrad, David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, Krista M. Kennerly, Fuxia Jin and Sandra J. Wallner-Liebmann

This study tested the acute anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influence of a quercetin-based supplement consumed by endurance athletes 15 min before an intense 2-hr run. In this randomized, crossover study, 20 runners (11 men, 9 women, age 38.4 ± 2.1 yr) completed two 2-hr treadmill runs at 70% VO2max (3 wk apart). Subjects ingested either 4 quercetin-based chews (Q-chew) or placebo chews (PL) 15 min before the runs. The 4 Q-chews provided 1,000 mg quercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin 3-gallate, 400 mg isoquercetin, 400 mg each eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 1,000 mg vitamin C, and 40 mg niacinamide. Subjects provided blood samples 30 min before, immediately after, and 1 hr postexercise and were analyzed for plasma quercetin, total blood leukocytes (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), 9 cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p70), granulocyte (GR) and monocyte (MO) phagocytosis (PHAG), and oxidative-burst activity (OBA). Plasma quercetin increased from 80.0 ± 26.0 μg/L to 6,337 ± 414 μg/L immediately postexercise and 4,324 ± 310 μg/L 1 hr postexercise after ingestion of Q-chews, compared with no change in PL (p < .001). Exercise caused significant increases in, CRP, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, GR-PHAG, and MO-PHAG and decreases in GR-OBA and MO-OBA, but no differences in the pattern of change were measured between Q-chew and PL trials. Acute ingestion of Q-chews 15 min before heavy exertion caused a strong increase in plasma quercetin levels but did not counter postexercise inflammation or immune changes relative to placebo.

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Bradley J. Conant, Nicole A. German and Shannon L. David

tears were excluded. Intervention investigated Two 5- to 8-mL injections of leukocyte-rich PRP performed with ultrasound guidance 2 wk apart. Rehabilitation program consisted of immediate bracing and a Kibler-integrated program focusing on kinetic chain strengthening. Interval throwing program began

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Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Paul D. Loprinzi

-specific mortality. This is of importance given the association between muscle strength and various health-related markers (eg, diabetes prevalence and severity, 4 leukocyte telomere length 5 ), which may help to reduce the prevalence of cancer-specific mortality. 6 Prospective studies on the effects of lower

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

beneficial effects of muscular strength improvements have also been shown to extend to adults with human immunodeficiency virus 23 and Parkinson’s disease. 24 Of additional note, recent work demonstrates a direct association between lower extremity muscle strength and leukocyte telomere length, with

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

lactate, CK, and CRP analysis. Peak power and mean power were assessed with the Wingate Cycle Test. Main findings 24 h after exercise, there was an increase of total leukocytes in PR and Cryo groups. CK levels were only increased significantly in the Cryo group. CRP was more pronounced in the PR group. PR

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

/m 2 ]). 30 Telomere Length Measurement Telomere length was measured at 2 points, baseline and after 16 weeks of PRT, using a previously described method. 13 Briefly, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes, and telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy

.F. , Hunkin , J.L. , Kato , B.S. , Richards , J.B. , Gardner , J.P. , Surdulescu , G.L. , . . . Aviv , A. ( 2008 ). The association between physical activity in leisure time and leukocyte telomere length . Archives of Internal Medicine, 168 ( 2 ), 154 – 158 . PubMed ID: 18227361 doi:10

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

concentrations is likely the result of apoptotic cell death caused by leukocytes or lymphocytes, which takes several hours. 9 , 29 In line with this, it was shown that proapoptotic genes were upregulated up to 24 hours after long-lasting endurance exercise. 29 In contrast to the increases measured directly

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Thomas Rowland

cortisol concentrations increased significantly from preexercise to postexercise in the hypoxic environment. Leukocyte and T-cell count increased and B-cell count decreased after exercise under both conditions. There were no significant changes in natural killer cell count. Conclusion : Our simulated