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Aiko Sakurai, Kengo Harato, Yutaro Morishige, Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki and Takeo Nagura

ligament injury. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable contribution of Satoshi Imai, Ryoji Hayakawa, Yu Iwama, Kazuya Kaneda, and Sumi Yamashita. References 1. Griffin LY , Agel J , Albohm MJ , et al . Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and

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Xingda Qu, Jianxin Jiang and Xinyao Hu

, Clement DB . The potential role of prophylactic/functional knee bracing in preventing knee ligament injury . Sports Med . 2009 ; 39 ( 11 ): 937 – 960 . PubMed doi:10.2165/11317790-000000000-00000 19827861 10.2165/11317790-000000000-00000 2. Agel J , Evans TA , Dick R , Putukian M

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Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka and Takahiro Otsudo

assistants in this study. References 1. Mihata LC , Beutler AI , Boden BP . Comparing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in collegiate lacrosse, soccer, and basketball players: implications for anterior cruciate ligament mechanism and prevention. Am J Sports Med . 2006 ; 34 ( 6

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Caroline Lisee, Tom Birchmeier, Arthur Yan, Brent Geers, Kaitlin O’Hagan, Callum Davis and Christopher Kuenze

stability predict second anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and return to sport . Am J Sports Med . 2010 ; 38 ( 10 ): 1968 – 1978 . PubMed ID: 20702858 doi: 10.1177/0363546510376053 20702858 7. Goetschius J , Kuenze CM , Hart JM . Knee extension

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Travis Anderson, Sandra J. Shultz, Nancy I. Williams, Ellen Casey, Zachary Kincaid, Jay L. Lieberman and Laurie Wideman

properties and ligament injury risk in females. For example, despite obtaining detectable levels in only 36% of their cohort, Dragoo et al. ( 2011 ) reported significant associations between higher relaxin levels and ACL injury risk potential. While this seminal work is innovative and compelling, our

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Brian Pietrosimone, Phillip A. Gribble and Abbey C. Thomas

analysis of the data for this project: Christopher Dykyj, Emily Borden, and Tiffany LeVan. References 1. Hewett T , Myer G , Ford K . Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: part 1, mechanisms and risk factors . Am J Sports Med . 2006 ; 34 ( 2 ): 299 – 311 . PubMed ID: 16423913

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Caitlin Lefevre, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey, Abbey C. Thomas, Phillip A. Gribble and Brian Pietrosimone

doi:10.1177/0363546514563282 25583757 10.1177/0363546514563282 3. Hewett TE , Myer GD , Ford KR , et al . Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study . Am J Sports Med

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Brad W. Willis, Katie Hocker, Swithin Razu, Aaron D. Gray, Marjorie Skubic, Seth L. Sherman, Samantha Kurkowski and Trent M. Guess

neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study . Am J Sports Med . 2005 ; 33 ( 4 ): 492 – 501 . PubMed ID: 15722287 doi:10.1177/0363546504269591 15722287 10.1177/0363546504269591 4. Krosshaug T , Steffen K

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Ewa Kaminska, Tomasz Piontek, Marzena Wiernicka, Grazyna Cywinska-Wasilewska, Jacek Lewandowski and Dawid Lochynski

Context:

The extent of knee extensor and flexor weakness after disruption of knee ligaments affects a rehabilitation output and functional recovery and may give prognostic information on a possible risk of development of knee osteoarthritis.

Objective:

The hypothesis tested was whether patients with a multiple-ligament tear would have larger abnormalities in strength of the knee extensors and flexors than patients with an isolated-ligament rupture.

Design:

Cross-sectional study, level III.

Setting:

Outpatient orthopedic clinic.

Participants:

3 groups of recreationally active men: noninjured control (CON, n = 12), with an anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI, n = 10), and with combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injury (APCLI, n = 9), matched according to age, body mass, and height.

Intervention:

All patients received conservative treatment and rehabilitation and awaited ligament reconstruction surgery.

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic maximum-repetition peak torque per body mass (PT/BM) and total work (TW), PT and TW limb-symmetry index (LSI), and flexor-to-extensor PT ratio were evaluated during concentric knee extension-flexion movements at lower (60°/s) and higher (240°/s) isokinetic velocities.

Results:

The main finding was that compared with the individuals with ACLI, patients with APCLI produced in their injured limbs lower mean TW (extension: 30.3%, flexion: 28.2%) and had lower mean TW LSI (extension 74% in APCLI vs 91.6% in ACLI; flexion 61.3% in APCLI vs 90.8% in ACLI) at the higher but not lower speed of isokinetic testing. However, at the lower velocity the quantified size of reduction in PT/BM and TW was greater in subjects with APCLI than ACLI as compared with the CON individuals.

Conclusions:

After bi-cruciate-ligament injury the capacity to produce torque by concentric muscle contractions throughout knee-extension and-flexion movements performed with high speed is lower in injured limbs than after isolated anterior cruciate ligament tear.

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Justin H. Rigby and Shaylene B. Dye

A variety of cryotherapy systems may be used to cool tissues immediately after an injury. The purpose our study was to examine the effect of a 30-min application of various cryotherapy devices on skin temperatures and compression. A crossover-designed study performed in a university research laboratory was conducted. Each treatment condition was applied to the lateral ankle for 30 min on different days. HyperIce’s colder temperatures over the lateral ankle (p < .0001) would make it the treatment choice for immediate care of ankle lateral ligament injuries, but is limited due its size for larger injuries.