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Prospective Individualized Biomarker for Individuals at Risk of Low Energy Availability Claire E. Badenhorst * Katherine E. Black * Wendy J. O’Brien * 1 11 2019 29 6 671 681 10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0006 ijsnem.2019-0006 A Narrative Review on Female Physique Athletes: The Physiological and Psychological

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-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Joanne G. Mirtschin * Sara F. Forbes * Louise E. Cato * Ida A. Heikura * Nicki Strobel * Rebecca Hall * Louise M. Burke * 1 09 2018 28 5 480 489 10.1123/ijsnem.2017-0249 ijsnem.2017-0249 Prevalence of Indicators of Low Energy Availability in Elite Female Sprinters Jennifer

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: From Training to Competition Adam Douglas * Michael A. Rotondi * Joseph Baker * Veronica K. Jamnik * Alison K. Macpherson * 1 10 2019 14 9 1227 1232 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0571 ijspp.2018-0571 Alternate-Day Low Energy Availability During Spring Classics in Professional Cyclists Ida A. Heikura

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

-Q = eating disorder examination questionnaire; EE = energy expenditure; EEE = exercise energy expenditure; EI = energy intake; EUM = eumenorrhea; FFM = fat-free mass; HR = heart rate; HRaS = HR above sleeping; HRIGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1; LEA = low energy availability; LEAF-Q = Low Energy Availability

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Bradley D. Hatfield, Calvin M. Lu and Jo B. Zimmerman

University triad described the female athlete triad, which comprises menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density and has become increasingly common in women pushing their bodies under the pressure of intense training. She described a

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

risk factor for upper respiratory infections in elite professional athletes . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2008 ; 40 : 1228 – 1236 . PubMed ID: 18580401 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 18580401 8. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability

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Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza

( De Souza et al., 2007a ; Gibbs et al., 2011 ), high cognitive restraint ( Vescovi et al., 2008 ), low energy availability as assessed by the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire ( Staal et al., 2018 ), low total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) ( De Souza et al., 2008 ), high peptide YY ( Scheid

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per se, or failure to optimally integrate the periodization of exercise, nutrition, and recovery. Low energy availability occurs where nutritional intake is not sufficient to cover expenditure from training and resting metabolic rate. In this situation the body goes into energy saving mode, including

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athletes in the field of sports nutrition as part of the discussion on the relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). There is some evidence that the physiological RMR is lowered as a result of a low energy availability. In practice, RMR can be simply estimated using different formulas, which are based

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

volume requires dietary energy and CHO support, especially for high quality and race practice workouts • High power to weight ratio (i.e., low body mass/fat content) associated with success but poses another risk for low energy availability. • Race success requires high availability of economical CHO