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Hiroaki Hobara, Sakiko Saito, Satoru Hashizume, Hiroyuki Sakata and Yoshiyuki Kobayashi

largely unknown. By using group-based analysis, a previous study showed that the average velocity for a 100-m sprint in unilateral transtibial amputees significantly correlated with step frequency rather than with step length. 5 However, an average group-based analysis can actually mask important issues

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Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan

.8°C, 62%–63%, and 1011–1021 mm Hg, respectively, for laboratory testing. Assessment of VO 2peak and GET Upon arrival to the laboratory and following the necessary screening procedures, participants were fitted with a polar heart rate monitor (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and face mask (Hans

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Tom Gibbons

.” According to Grano, the “problem” of forgetting is something that is inescapable in elite sport as the advance of human athletic potential masks realities such as racial inequality. Athletic bodies are regarded as “theological objects” in that they are considered eternal only in the moment they are created

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

, UK). Respiratory gas exchange was measured by a MetaMax cardiopulmonary exercise testing system (CORTEX Biophysik GmbH, Leipzig, Germany). The system was calibrated on each day of testing to provide reliable results, and participants were required to wear a breathing mask that was adapted

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

hostile attitudes toward out-groups associated with collective narcissism masks the potential of unpretentious and noncontingent positive in-group regard to predict positive attitudes toward out-groups ( Golec de Zavala, Cichocka, & Bilewicz, 2013 , p. 25). Sport researchers have long demonstrated a

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Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie

. Across the span of those decades, the sport moved from virtually no players wearing protective headgear to almost every player wearing protective helmets or masks. Bachynski’s historical account is instructive for understanding decision making in sport organizations more generally, as she demonstrates

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Whitney A. Welch, Scott J. Strath, Michael Brondino, Renee Walker and Ann M. Swartz

(400 g) device that secures onto the individual’s chest, while the small battery (120 × 20 × 80 mm) is placed on the upper back. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are sampled from the face mask covering the participant’s nose and mouth, and a turbine attached to the face mask measured ventilation. Breath

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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint and P. Hellard

immediately using backward extrapolation and a K4b2 gas analyzer (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) connected to a face mask (Hans Rudolph, Inc, Shawnee, KS). As soon as the swimmer’s head was out of the water, the mask was put on the swimmer for 30 seconds. The first 20 seconds were used for the analysis to determine V

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Sjors Groot, Lars H.J. van de Westelaken, Dionne A. Noordhof, Koen Levels and Jos J. de Koning

checked during every calibration and accepted if between 50 and 200 ms. Dead space of the mask depended on the size of the mask (small: 50 mL; medium: 60 mL). The volume transducer was calibrated using a 3-L volume syringe (COSMED srl). Heart rate was measured during the test with a heart rate monitor

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Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick and Dirk De Clercq

the shoe-surface pressures. As such, the sum of recorded pressures multiplied by active sensor area should be equivalent to the total vertical GRF measured with the AMTI force plate. In the Footscan 7 software we applied a 4-zone mask: (a) lateral and (b) medial rearfoot (splitting the posterior 1