Displacement-based measurement systems are becoming increasingly popular for assessment of force expression variables during resistance exercise. Typically a linear position transducer (LPT) is attached to the barbell to measure displacement and a double differentiation technique is used to determine acceleration. Force is calculated as the product of mass and acceleration. Despite the apparent utility of these devices, validity data are scarce. To determine whether LPT can accurately estimate vertical ground reaction forces, two men and four women with moderate to extensive resistance training experience performed concentric-only (CJS) and rebound (RJS) jump squats, two sessions of each type in random order. CJS or RJS were performed with 30%, 50%, and 70% one-repetition maximum parallel back squat 5 minutes following a warm-up and again after a 10-min rest. Displacement was measured via LPT and acceleration was calculated using the finite-difference technique. Force was estimated from the weight of the lifter-barbell system and propulsion force from the lifter-barbell system. Vertical ground reaction force was directly measured with a single-component force platform. Two-way random average-measure intraclass correlations (ICC) were used to assess the reliability of obtained measures and compare the measurements obtained via each method. High reliability (ICC > 0.70) was found for all CJS variables across the load-spectrum. RJS variables also had high ICC except for time parameters for early force production. All variables were significantly (p < 0.01) related between LPT and force platform methods with no indication of systematic bias. The LPT appears to be a valid method of assessing force under these experimental conditions.
Loren Z.F. Chiu, Brian K. Schilling, Andrew C. Fry and Lawrence W. Weiss
Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis
of this important and innovative field of research by highlighting the challenges associated with what is broadly perceived as the main potential impediment of progress, namely the measurement of implicit processes. In a recent review of this literature, Rebar et al. ( 2016 ) noted that the use of a
Matthew T. Mahar and David A. Rowe
A comprehensive review of the impact of measurement and evaluation in kinesiology is difficult to accomplish within the framework of a single research paper. Measurement touches nearly every research area in the field of kinesiology. In fact, for quantitative research it can be argued that without good measurement there can be no good research. Measurement researchers in kinesiology have impacted various areas, including criterion-referenced evaluation of test scores, development of fitness tests to measure body composition and aerobic fitness, health-related physical fitness, physical activity epidemiology, youth fitness testing, and many others. They have introduced innovative statistical techniques such as item response theory, which provides the underlying basis for modern standardized testing. Issues of test equating, differential item functioning, and the great impact of the expansion of computers and the Internet deserve special attention. Unfortunately, not all of the important contributions in the measurement field can be expanded upon in this manuscript. Instead, this paper will focus mainly on key measurement and evaluation influences on public health issues. In applied measurement research, two major themes have been the assessment of physical fitness and the assessment of physical activity. The last 40 years have been a time of defining the content area of measurement in kinesiology. Important measurement textbooks were published during this period (Baumgartner & Jackson, 1975; Morrow, Jackson, Disch, & Mood, 1995; Safrit, 1986). Since the 1970s the measurement field and the kinesiology field in general expanded from a focus on physical education to include all of the exercise and sport sciences. This paper will explore measurement and evaluation in kinesiology by (a) providing an overview of major milestones in measurement and evaluation over the last 40 years, (b) discussing current key areas of research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation, and (c) speculating about future research and inquiry in measurement and evaluation. The absence in this article of other important issues in measurement and evaluation in kinesiology does not imply anything about their importance.
David R. Paul, Ryan McGrath, Chantal A. Vella, Matthew Kramer, David J. Baer and Alanna J. Moshfegh
both physical activity surveillance and promotion studies, investigators continue to struggle with the complexities associated with physical activity measurement and assessment. 7 – 9 Evidence demonstrating the associations between energy expenditure, physical activity, and health has been derived
Gary L. Harrelson, Deidre Leaver-Dunn, A. Louise Fincher and James D. Leeper
The purpose of this study was to examine the inter- and intratester reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements obtained by two testers using the same tape measure and two different tape measures. Twenty-one male high school student-athletes participated in this study. Two testers measured lower extremity circumference at three sites using a standard flexible tape measure and a Lufkin tape measure with a Gulick spring-loaded handle attachment. Measurement sites were medial joint line, 20 cm above medial joint line, and 15 cm below medial joint line. Intraclass correlation coefficients were computed for inter- and intratester comparisons for each measuring device and each measurement site. Results indicated high reliability but a significant difference between the two tape measures. These findings indicate that the reliability of lower extremity circumference measurements is not influenced by tester experience and that the Lufkin tape measure with the Gulick handle attachment is the more accurate of the two tape measures.
David J. Driscoll, Bruce A. Staats and Kenneth C. Beck
Knowledge of cardiac output changes during exercise is helpful for understanding normal exercise physiology and the effect of disease upon exercise performance. There are four noninvasive techniques applicable to measurement of cardiac output in children: Indirect Fick, acetylene rebreathing, electrical bioimpedance, and Doppler. Each technique requires substantial operator experience to obtain reliable and reproducible results.
Masato Maeda, Eiji Shamoto, Toshimichi Moriwaki and Haruo Nomura
The present paper presents a new sensor to measure 6 components of force and 2 components of deflection applied to the javelin during the throw. Since the javelin is deflected and vibraled during throwing, measurement of force and deflection applied to the javelin will provide important information for throwers in how to better throw the javelin and to design javelins with better dynamic characteristics. The sensor is designed not to significantly change the static and dynamic characteristics of the javelin. The force sensor performs well in terms of linearity and crosstalk, and the javelin equipped with this sensor has similar characteristics to ordinary javelins. The present paper also presents an example of measurement in the javelin throw.
Carlos M. Cervantes and David L. Porretta
This review examined the literature on physical activity measurement among individuals with disabilities utilizing Yun and Ulrich’s (2002) view on measurement validity. Specific inclusion criteria were identified. The search produced 115 articles; however, only 28 met all specified criteria. Findings revealed that self-reports and accelerometers were the most common approaches to measuring physical activity, and individuals with orthopedic impairments, those with mental retardation, and those with other health impairments received the most attention. Of the 28 articles, 17 (61%) reported validity and reliability evidence. Among those studies reporting validity, criterion-related evidence was the most common; however, a number of methodological limitations relative to validity were observed. Given the importance of using multiple physical activity measures, only five (18%) studies reported the use of multiple measures. Findings are discussed relative to conducting future physical activity research on persons with disabilities.
Kristie Bjornson, Kit Song, Jennifer Lisle, Sarah Robinson, Elizabeth Killien, Terry Barrett and Chuan Zhou
The aim of this study was to describe walking (stride) activity frequency and intensity in 428 children ages 2–15 years with a single accelerometer-based device. With comparison with published pedometer-determined data, the influence of leg length was examined. Decline in stride frequency and intensity throughout childhood increased with adjustment for leg length. The accelerometer-based device documented higher stride counts than published pedometer-based data with the greatest discrepancy in 4–5 year olds. Recommended walking levels for optimal weight throughout childhood should be examined with knowledge of the device measurement differences and the natural history of walking activity changes with age.
Frank A. Treiber, Francis McCaffrey, William B. Strong, Harry Davis and Tom Baranowski
This study compared blood pressure and heart rate measurements provided by the Quinton 410 automated exercise monitor with simultaneous auscultatory and electrocardiograph readings during rest, postural change, immediately after each treadmill exercise workload, and during active recovery in a sample of young children (mean age 7.9 yrs). The Quinton 410 provided highly accurate heart rates under all conditions (average mean difference <1.0 bpm). The Quinton systolic readings correlated well with and were similar to auscultation across conditions except for the initial treadmill workload. Slightly weaker relationships were observed between the Quinton and K4 diastolic comparisons. Compared with K4 auscultatory readings, the Quinton 410 provided slightly lower diastolic pressures across conditions (average mean difference = 3.1 mmHg). These findings provide preliminary evidence that for group comparisons with children, the Quinton 410 provides acceptable blood pressure estimates resulting from a variety of events, including exercise.