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Nina Waaler Loland

The aims of this study were to examine the level of exercise among elderly people with regard to the current Norwegian recommendations, demographic correlates of exercise, and the relationship between exercise and subjective health among elderly men and women. A representative sample of 3,770 Norwegian men and women between 65 and 97 years of age (mean 75 years) completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 83.4%. Results showed that 6% of the participants exercise at the level recommended. The oldest old (>80 years), those who have an illness and use medication, and individuals with lower levels of education and income are the least active segments of the sample. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, and education, results showed that exercise at moderate intensity 3–4 days per week is a significant predictor for positive subjective health.

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M. Jonathan King, Timothy David Noakes and Eugene Godfrey Weinberg

Twelve boys with atopic asthma, ages 9-14 years, were divided equally into exercise and control groups. Identical measurements were made before and after a 3-month trial period during which the exercise group was trained. The trained group, but not the control group, showed significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness including maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and peak running velocity during the maximal treadmill test (p<0.05). Treadmill velocity at the lactate tumpoint was greater and heart rate during submaximal exercise was lower in the trained subjects after the trial period. Subjective and objective findings (less use of medication, fewer asthmatic attacks, increased physical activity) suggested that clinical asthma improved with training. However exercise-induced asthma (EIA), measured by the airway’s response to a standardized treadmill run, did not alter with training.

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Yael Netz, Rebecca Goldsmith, Tal Shimony, Yosefa Ben-Moshe and Aviva Zeev

The trend of extended life expectancy along with a sedentary lifestyle is typical in Western cultures.


To explore adherence to physical activity recommendations in older adults in Israel.


A random sample of 1,536 Jews and 316 Arabs age 65+ were interviewed and divided into sufficiently active, insufficiently active, and inactive groups based on official guidelines.


Only 36.4% of the Jewish sector and 19.6% of the Arab sector are sufficiently active. Men are more active than women, the secular are more active than the religious among both Jews and Arabs, and more years of education, a higher income, and fewer diseases and medications are related to higher levels of physical activity.


To slow down biological age decline with physical activity, intervention programs specifically tailored for culturally diverse groups are suggested—for example, recruiting prominent religious leaders to promote physical activity in religious populations.

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Bradley K. Kaya

Plantar fasciitis is a common sports injury that typically presents as heel pain. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on plantar fasciitis, with emphasis on etiologic factors and current conservative management. A combination of anatomical and biomechanicai factors, repetitive forces, and training errors can predispose an athlete to plantar fasciitis. Most people with plantar fasciitis improve with conservative treatment. Treatment should initially be aimed at decreasing pain and inflammation through rest, modification of activity, medication, orthotics, and physical therapy. Identification of predisposing factors for each athlete is necessary to effectively treat the athlete and return him or her to sports activity. Although many treatment options are suggested in the literature, few have been studied for use with plantar fasciitis. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of conservative methods to manage plantar fasciitis.

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Sameep D. Maniar, Lewis A. Curry, John Sommers-Flanagan and James A. Walsh

This study’s purpose was to evaluate athlete willingness to seek help from various sport-titled and non sport-titled individuals when confronted with three common sport performance problem scenarios: midseason slump, return from serious injury, and desire to perform more optimally. Athlete intervention preferences were also assessed. Data were collected on a stratified (by gender) random sample of 60 NCAA Division I athletes. Using an observable one-point difference on a nine-point Likert-type scale and a corresponding moderate to large main effect (Cohen’s d < .40), results indicated that for all scenarios, athletes preferred seeking help from a coach over sport-titled professionals, whereas sport-titled professionals were preferred over counselors and clinical psychologists. Goal setting and imagery were the preferred interventions. Hypnosis and medication were less preferred. The discussion focuses on sport-related professional titles and athlete education to enhance service acceptability.

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Keith Henschen, Michael Horvat and Ron French

The purpose of this study was to visually compare the psychological profile of 33 male wheelchair athletes who competed in track and field events, with previous results of able-bodied athletes. Based on the data gathered using the Profile of Mood States and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory the wheelchair athletes demonstrated a profile similar to that of able-bodied athletes. This finding was discussed in terms of mental skills that may be developed by wheelchair athletes because of their injuries, possible influence of medication, and higher level of demonstrated anger.

Considering that the human body is made for movement, it is a universally accepted fact that sports are one of the activities that are extremely healthy for man. Unlike the machines invented by man, the human machine deteriorates with inactivity. (Monnazzi, 1982, p. 85)

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James A. Levine

The know-how is available to reverse the obesity epidemic. Reversing obesity is a societal necessity because it is the predominant contributor to chronic ill health in developed countries and a growing precipitant of illness in middle and low-income countries. In the United States, for example, obesity is the chief driver of health care costs in a country that can no longer afford health care. Although some might advocate population-wide medication use to mitigate the effects of obesity on health, the more direct response is to end obesity. The goal of this paper is explain how mass-scalable obesity containment can be designed, built, and disseminated. Scalable Obesity Solutions (S.O.S.) are discussed from concept through deployment.

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Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Dov Shmotkin and Shira Goldberg

The study aimed to investigate factors influencing older adults’ physical activity engagement over time. The authors analyzed 3 waves of data from a sample of Israelis age 75–94 (Wave 1 n = 1,369, Wave 2 n = 687, Wave 3 n = 154). Findings indicated that physical activity engagement declined longitudinally. Logistic regressions showed that female gender, older age, and taking more medications were significant risk factors for stopping exercise at Wave 2 in those physically active at Wave 1. In addition, higher functional and cognitive status predicted initiating exercise at Wave 2 in those who did not exercise at Wave 1. By clarifying the influence of personal characteristics on physical activity engagement in the Israeli old-old, this study sets the stage for future investigation and intervention, stressing the importance of targeting at-risk populations, accommodating risk factors, and addressing both the initiation and the maintenance of exercise in the face of barriers.

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Parinda Khatri, James A. Blumenthal, Michael A. Babyak, W. Edward Craighead, Steve Herman, Teri Baldewicz, David J. Madden, Murali Doraiswamy, Robert Waugh and K. Ranga Krishnan

The effects of a structured exercise program on the cognitive functioning of 84 clinically depressed middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 57 years) were examined. Participants were randomized to either 4 months of aerobic exercise (n = 42) or antidepressant medication (n = 42). Assessments of cognitive functioning (memory, psychomotor speed, executive functioning, and attention/concentration), depression, and physical fitness (aerobic capacity and exercise endurance) were conducted before and after the intervention. Exercise-related changes (accounting for baseline levels of cognitive functioning and depression) were observed for memory (p = .01) and executive functioning (p = .03). There were no treatment-group differences on tasks measuring either attention/concentration or psychomotor speed. Results indicate that exercise can exert influence on specific areas of cognitive functioning among depressed older adults. Further research is necessary to clarify the kinds of cognitive processes that are affected by exercise and the mechanisms by which exercise affects cognitive functioning.

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Kathleen T. Rhyner and Amber Watts

Depressive symptoms are common in older adults, but antidepressant medications may be contraindicated or poorly tolerated in this population. Intervention studies demonstrate that exercise may be an effective alternative. This meta-analysis included 41 randomized controlled trials of aerobic and nonaerobic exercise interventions investigating the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults aged 60 or older. A random effects model demonstrated that exercise was associated with significantly lower depression severity (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI 0.36–0.78). This effect was not significantly different for different ages of participants, types of control groups, or types of exercise interventions. Studies requiring a diagnosis of depression had significantly greater mean effect sizes than studies that did not require a depression diagnosis (Qbet = 6.843, df = 1, p = .009). These findings suggest that exercise is an effective treatment option for older individuals with depressive symptoms.