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Michael William Beets, Charles F. Morgan, Jorge A. Banda, Daniel Bornstein, Won Byun, Jonathan Mitchell, Lance Munselle, Laura Rooney, Aaron Beighle and Heather Erwin

Background:

Pedometer step-frequency thresholds (120 steps·min-1, SPM) corresponding to moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) have been proposed for youth. Pedometers now have internal mechanisms to record time spent at or above a user-specified SPM. If pedometers provide comparable MVPA (P-MVPA) estimates to those from accelerometry, this would have broad application for research and the general public. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of P-MVPA to accelerometer-MVPA for youth.

Methods:

Youth (N = 149, average 8.6 years, range 5 to 14 years, 60 girls) wore an accelerometer (5-sec epochs) and a pedometer for an average of 5.7 ± 0.8 hours·day-1. The following accelerometer cutpoints were used to compare P-MVPA: Treuth (TR), Mattocks (MT), Evenson (EV), Puyau (PU), and Freedson (FR) child equation. Comparisons between MVPA estimates were performed using Bland-Altman plots and paired t tests.

Results:

Overall, P-MVPA was 24.6 min ± 16.7 vs. TR 25.2 min ± 16.2, MT 18.8 min ± 13.3, EV 36.9 min ± 21.0, PU 22.7 min ± 15.1, and FR 50.4 min ± 25.5. Age-specific comparisons indicated for 10 to 14 year-olds MT, PU, and TR were not significantly different from P-MVPA; for the younger children (5−8 year- olds) P-MVPA consistently underestimated MVPA.

Conclusions:

Pedometer-determined MVPA provided comparable estimates of MVPA for older children (10−14 year-olds). Additional work is required to establish age appropriate SPM thresholds for younger children.

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Samantha McDonald, Marsha Dowda, Natalie Colabianchi, Dwayne Porter, Rod K. Dishman and Russell R. Pate

Previous research suggests the neighborhood environment may be an important influence on children’s physical activity (PA) behaviors; however, findings are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA. Utilizing a structural equation modeling technique, we tested a conceptual model linking parent and child perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for PA, and child outdoor PA with children’s afterschool moderate-to vigorous PA. We found that child perception of the neighborhood environment and outdoor PA were positively associated with afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA. In addition, parent support for PA positively influenced children’s outdoor PA. The neighborhood environment and outdoor activity appear to play an influential role on children’s afterschool PA behaviors.

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Peng Zhang, Jung Eun Lee, David F. Stodden and Zan Gao

Physical activity (PA) of appropriate duration and intensity is associated with children’s cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and physiological health. 1 Public health recommendations for children and adolescent’s PA suggest a minimum 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each

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Christopher Kuenze, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Karin Pfieffer, Stephanie Trigsted, Dane Cook, Caroline Lisee and David Bell

knee injury, 12 or development of knee joint osteoarthritis. 10 Consistent engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has broad positive effects on orthopedic outcomes as well as risk of chronic disease, 13 – 15 obesity, 16 , 17 and mental health status. 18 The ability to use

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Jesús Viciana, Daniel Mayorga-Vega and Alejandro Martínez-Baena

Background:

Primary and secondary school ages have been considered key moments to address the decrease of moderate-tovigorous physical activity (MVPA). Individual (eg, age, gender, and weight status) and contextual factors (moments of the day) need to be considered for a better explanation of the phenomenon. The quantity and quality of physical activity in Physical Education (PE), school recess (SR), and after school (AS) time need to be taken into account to solve the low levels of MVPA in youth.

Methods:

A sample of adolescents (N = 231, 14.6 ± 1.2 years old) was studied using accelerometry to determine the objective MVPA level in PE, SR, and AS.

Results:

Results indicated statistically significant differences on MVPA between contexts (AS > PE > SR, P < .001) as well as regarding the individual factors: age (older > younger in PE and younger > older in SR time; P < .001), gender (boys > girls in all contexts, P < .001), and weight status (overweight > nonoverweight in AS, P < .01).

Conclusions:

Because students did not meet the daily MVPA recommendations, some strategies have been provided in each of the contexts analyzed.

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Hyo Lee, Bradley J. Cardinal and Paul D. Loprinzi

Background:

Socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation are potential contributors of adolescent physical activity disparity among ethnic groups in the U.S. However, studies relying on self-report physical activity measures have reported inconsistent findings regarding sociocultural predictors of physical activity. Therefore, the current study examined the main and interactive effects of SES and acculturation on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among Mexican American adolescents.

Methods:

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004 was analyzed. Samples of 153 and 169 Mexican American boys and girls, respectively, were analyzed. SES was indicated by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR); and acculturation was measured by 5-item English preference scales and adolescent and parental country of birth. Regression models were tested separately for boys and girls.

Results:

U.S.-born boys compared with immigrants did more MVPA (β = .48, P < .01). On the contrary, the effect of English preference on MVPA in boys was negative (β = –.05, P < .01) and amplified by higher SES (β = –.02, P < .01). For girls, none of the tested variables were significant.

Conclusions:

Higher SES was a risk factor for physical inactivity in Mexican American adolescents, by a moderating mechanism. In addition, physical activity promotion efforts need to consider English speaking and immigrant Mexican American adolescent boys as a target population.

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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

Purpose: To investigate the differences in the pattern of changes in serum inflammatory cytokines measured annually over a 24-month period, between less active and more active overweight boys. Participants/Methods: In total, 25 pubertal overweight boys were divided by their moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels into 2 groups: less active group (LAG; n = 10; MVPA < 60 min/d) and more active group (MAG; n = 15; MVPA > 60 min/d). Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Serum concentration of 13 inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α, IL-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, epidermal growth factor, and C-reactive protein] was measured at baseline (T0), after 12 months (T1), and after 24 months (T2) from fasting blood samples. Results: Serum IL-6 level was significantly higher [LAG: 1.27 (0.86, 1.98) pg/mL; MAG: 0.80 (0.52, 0.84) pg/mL] at T0 and IL-8 level [LAG: 10.26 (8.80, 11.64) pg/mL; MAG: 7.42 (6.10, 9.54) pg/mL] at T2 in LAG compared with MAG. The changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers. None of the slopes of any measured markers were statistically different between the LAG and MAG, although the slopes of interferon-γ and IL-10 tended to be different between the groups. Conclusions: The pattern of changes over the study period varied between different inflammatory markers, but these changes were not different between the MVPA groups. More longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and interferon-γ would be the choice of inflammatory markers to study the associations between obesity and physical activity in future.

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson

girls’ moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) via mediated effects of self-presentation motives (i.e., both acquisitive motives only), physical activity identity, and PE class engagement; (c) positive direct effects would be observed from both acquisitive self-presentational motives to physical

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Xihe Zhu and Justin A. Haegele

,166+ CPM). Accelerometer data were downloaded with ActiLife 6 software (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL) and were included in the analysis if they wore a minimum of four consecutive days, with at least 8 hr of wear time per day. The moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) scores were computed as the sum