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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

( Levenhagen et al., 2001 ; van Loon et al., 2000 ), and markers of immune function ( Witard et al., 2014 ). Furthermore, studies show an accelerated regain of strength and function following a single bout of muscle-damaging resistance exercise when supplementing with whey protein ( Buckley et al., 2010

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Jordan D. Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H. Walshe, Elizabeth E. MacKinley, James Dick, Stuart D.R. Galloway, Kevin D. Tipton and Oliver C. Witard

are implicated in causing skeletal muscle fiber damage ( Nédélec et al., 2012 ; Russell et al., 2015 ). Multiple physiological events underpin the muscle damage process following eccentric-based exercise. Mechanical loading on muscle fibers initially serves to overstretch some myofilaments, resulting

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

ROS ( Steinbacher & Eckl, 2015 ). Notably, consumption of antioxidant supplements has become a very common practice for athletes and physically active individuals in a perceived attempt to enhance training, speed up recovery, and limit muscle damage and soreness ( Gomez-Cabrera et al., 2008

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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli

increased LBM by ∼8.5 and ∼7.5 kg, respectively. It has been argued that the free acid form of HMB may explain such positive results because HMB-FA has greater bioavailability than its calcium salt form (HMB-Ca; Fuller et al., 2011 ). Another explanation lies in the ability of HMB to minimize muscle damage

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Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill

Participation in athletic training and competition can cause exercise-induced muscle damage. This phenomenon occurs as a result of mechanical and metabolic stress and is mainly associated with prolonged high-intensity eccentric or unaccustomed exercise. 1 Exercise-induced muscle damage is

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

:5. 7 Speed-endurance production training drills typically utilize repetitive soccer-specific, high-speed running (HSR) with powerful changes of direction. 8 These actions incorporate a strong eccentric component which is associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). 9 EIMD produces localized

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James Fell and Andrew Dafydd Williams

Recovery from exercise is integral to the physical training process. There is a perception among older athletes that aging negatively affects the recovery process. Plausible arguments for an impaired recovery with aging are a greater susceptibility of older muscle to exercise-induced skeletal-muscle damage and a slower repair and adaptation response. Differences in the physical activity level of the research participants are rarely considered, however. This makes it difficult to differentiate the respective roles of declining physical activity and aging on the recovery process. Furthermore, the type of exercise used to induce damage and monitor recovery is often not indicative of a normal training stimulus for athletes. This review discusses the effects of aging on skeletal-muscle damage and recovery processes and highlights the limitations of many of these studies with respect to older athletes. Future research should use an exercise intervention representative of a normal training stimulus and take the physical activity level of the participants into account.

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Richard J. Bloomer

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of antioxidant therapy on indirect markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise (EE). Eighteen women were randomized to an antioxidant supplement or a placebo before a bout of EE. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, muscle soreness (MS), maximal isometric force (MIF), and range of motion (ROM) were assessed before and through 14 d postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in an increase in CK activity and MS, and a drop in MIF and ROM during the days following EE, which returned to baseline values 14 d after EE in both groups. Antioxidants attenuated the CK activity and MS response to the EE, while little difference was noted between groups in MIF or ROM. These fndings suggest that antioxidant supplementation was helpful in reducing the elevations in plasma CK activity and MS, with little impact on MIF and ROM loss.

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José M.C. Soares, Paulo Mota, José A. Duarte and Hans J. Appell

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether children showed similar signs of muscle overuse like adults after intense exercise. One child group (n = 10) and one adult group (n = 10) of males both had to perform five series of bench press exercises at an intensity of 80% of maximum strength until exhaustion. Maximum isometric strength, subjective perception of muscle pain, was measured before, immediately after, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before, 48 hr, 72 hr, and 1 week after the exercise. The adults showed all symptoms of muscle overuse: reduced strength, muscle pain, and elevated CK activities until 3 days after the exercise. In contrast, the children experienced only some light muscle pain, but neither showed reduced strength nor elevated CK activities. It is concluded that children’s muscles can easier withstand physical stress than adult muscles.

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Borut Fonda and Nejc Sarabon

It has been reported in practice that the application of lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to elite athletes during periods of intense training can help aid recovery.

Purpose:

To examine the effects of LBNP on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during a 5-d recovery period after a damaging plyometric-exercise bout.

Design:

Randomized controlled study.

Methods:

24 healthy young female adults were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Before and 1, 24, 48, and 96 h after the damaging exercise for hamstrings (50 drop jumps and 50 leg curls), participants underwent a series of tests (blood samples, pain sensation, countermovement jump, maximal isometric torque production, maximal explosive isometric torque production, and 10-m sprint). After the damaging exercise, the experimental group was exposed to intermittent LBNP therapy daily for 60 min.

Results:

There was a statistically significant interaction (P < .05) between the experimental and control groups for maximal strength, explosive strength, pain sensation, and vertical jumps (maximal power and force). No statistically significant interaction was present for the biochemical markers, jump height, and 100-m sprint.

Conclusions:

LBNP therapy could improve recovery by limiting the loss in muscle strength and power and limiting the presence of pain.