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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

disease populations ( Smith et al., 2013 ), the growing body of literature on physical activity and gut health may help to inform future bacterial therapeutic interventions attempting to restore microbial homeostasis and preserve physiological systems (e.g., aging skeletal muscle size and function

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

, 46 ( 3 ), 451 – 456 . Lastayo , P.C. , Pierotti, , D.J. , Pifer , J. , Hoppeler , H. , & Lindstedt , S.L. ( 2000 ). Eccentric ergometry: Increases in locomotor muscle size and strength at low training intensities . American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

Advancing age is characterized by a progressive deterioration of many physiological systems. The age-related loss of skeletal muscle size and function (i.e., sarcopenia) coupled with deficits in bone mass, and microarchitectural deterioration (i.e., osteopenia/osteoporosis) is particularly

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

( Van Roie et al., 2013 ). Watanabe, Madarame, Ogasawara, Nakazato, and Ishii ( 2014 ) reported that low-intensity exercise (30% of one repetition maximum) increased the muscle size and strength in older adults aged 60–77 years ( Watanabe et al., 2014 ). The exercise protocol comprised three sets of

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

decreased head accelerations during the extension conditions. SCM size differences in relative proportion to the neck may have contributed to this finding. Regardless of muscle size, the larger head accelerations observed in females may be attributable to smaller total neck volume, as more tissue volume is

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Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Miriam González-Izal, Rafael Grazioli, Igor Setuain, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Mikel Izquierdo

, studies have reported greater increases in muscle size following eccentric training compared with concentric training, 11 , 13 , 14 while others have found similar muscle hypertrophy after concentric and eccentric training. 12 , 15 , 16 However, comparisons of the effects of CON and ECC training on the

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Dean Ritchie, Justin Keogh, Steven Stern, Peter Reaburn, Fergus O’Connor and Jonathan D. Bartlett

(predominately skill-based drills with the addition of top-up running) was completed in the morning followed by a RT session in the afternoon. The aim of the RT program was designed to increase muscle size and strength both throughout preseason and in-season. To prevent participants becoming accustomed to any of

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Rafael Sabido, Jose Luis Hernández-Davó and Gabriel T. Pereyra-Gerber

-series study . Phys Ther Sport . 2011 ; 12 ( 1 ): 43 – 48 . doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.10.003 21256449 10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.10.003 9. Norrbrand L , Fluckey JD , Pozzo M , Tesch PA . Resistance training using eccentric overload induces early adaptations in skeletal muscle size . Eur J Appl Physiol

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

, Valentin, & Teillet, 2004 ). Indeed, aging, is characterized by a general degradation of the physiological functions which are associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions ( Guevara, Gianotti, Oliver, & Roca, 2011 ) and a progressive decrease in muscle size (e.g., 0.5–1% per year from the age of 50

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

, 34 Massage used for treatment of musculoskeletal injury has the ability to not only induce changes to muscle morphology, including alterations in muscle size and function, but can also benefit the patient by decreasing their pain and anxiety. Clinical Application Chronic pain is a difficult