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Jenny McMahon, Camilla J. Knight and Kerry R. McGannon

found to be normalized by many cultural insiders and seen as necessary in order to produce successful athletic performance ( Kerr & Stirling, 2012 ; McMahon et al., 2012 ). The coach is in a position of considerable influence and power leaving the athlete, particularly the child athlete vulnerable if

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Dominic Malcolm

that normalize playing while hurt and so mask the risks of athletic participation ( Nixon, 1992 ). These ideas dovetailed with concurrent theoretical developments focusing on the emergence of a “risk society” in which people are “increasingly preoccupied with the future (and also with safety), which

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Bridgette M. Desjardins

, Canada, and the United States. Work on sport and militarism is concerned with the role of sport in promoting and normalizing the military, military influence, and promilitary cultures. Considering the “worldwide use of sport and the military as mutually reinforcing institutions” ( Butterworth, 2017 , p

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Stanley Thangaraj

institutional discourse utilizes “sport as biopower” (204) while normalizing the idea of good citizenship by capitulating on the phrase that “sport is good for people.” (page 196) Thus, the authors demonstrate how sport is used as a panacea by governmental institutions while the critical research on the ground

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Martin Roderick and Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson

netball player, noted: “the camera . . . it’s right there [puts hand in front of face]. So if you’re getting shouted at, it’s all very public, you’re kind of getting publicly told-off for everyone to see.” For interviewees, being front stage and in the spotlight had become familiar terrain, a normalized

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Jamie Cleland, Keith Parry and David Radford

, p. 399) states how whiteness is “a complex, often contradictory, construction: ubiquitous, yet invisible; normalized and normative; universal, but always localized; unmarked, yet privileged.” Australia’s sporting fields and media outlets are not immune to racial tensions and there is a long history

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Nikolaus A. Dean

affect how athletes come to understand and experience pain and injury within their sporting cultures. These studies have shown that sport occurs in a cultural context that often normalizes, trivializes, and glorifies risk, pain, and injury ( Messner, 1990 ; Young, 2012 ). A cultural context that

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Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity

, docile bodies, and the technologies of disciplines and dominant discourses that produce them, are generally considered negative ( Rail & Harvey, 1995 ), resulting in the sterilization of life, homogeneity of the population ( Vigarello, 1995 ), and normalization ( Heikkala, 1993 ). For sociologists of

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Leslee A. Fisher

Nassar’s abuse included (a) a toxic and corrosive versus respectful athlete environment, (b) sex-based discrimination and misogyny as the norm which normalized inappropriate conduct directed at female athletes by men in power, (c) those with the most power (i.e., coaches, sport medicine doctors) were the

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

, females are “gendered” and males are both normalized and legitimized in traditional discourses and practices. As noted, there are historical and social reasons for the systematic exclusion of women from sport leadership roles, but the role of the individual is paramount ( Sartore & Cunningham, 2007