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Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N. Shelling, Clare R. Wall, Edwin A. Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M.E. McCowan and John M.D. Thompson

Global shifts surrounding dietary and exercise practices are considered the primary attributable factors in the widespread increase of obesity ( 21 ). The transition to an “obesogenic” environment has encouraged an increased intake of high-caloric food and sedentary behaviors by decreasing

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Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Bruno Beaune and Sébastien Boyas

According to the 2017 report from the World Health Organization, the number of obese individuals has increased in all age categories. 1 This may have major consequences on the health of the older adults as it has been reported that obesity negatively impacts individuals’ postural control and

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

Adolescence is considered a time of optimal health. However, during adolescence, it is important to establish health behaviors, especially dietary choices and physical activity (PA) because these patterns have been shown to carry into adulthood. 1 , 2 Obesity is well established as a risk factor

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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy

Physical activity is important for preventing and treating obesity ( Street, Wells, & Hills, 2015 ). Although physical activity is recommended as an integral component of most weight-loss interventions, the participation and adherence rates of individuals with obesity, and especially women, are

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Jordan A. Carlson, J. Aaron Hipp, Jacqueline Kerr, Todd S. Horowitz and David Berrigan

Systematic observation of health behaviors in context is the gold standard in public health research on built environments and obesity-related behaviors ( Evenson, Jones, Holliday, Cohen, & McKenzie, 2016 ; Glanz, Sallis, Saelens, & Frank, 2007 ; Joseph & Maddock, 2016 ). Traditional standards

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health concern. In fact, obesity is associated with a variety of inflammatory disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, and development of atherosclerosis, which are risk factors for cardiovascular

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Luke E. Kelly, James H. Rimmer and Richard A. Ness

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the percent body fat of 553 institutionalized mentally retarded adults, ages 18 to 40 yrs, from the Denton State School in Texas. The subjects included 343 males and 210 females. Their percent body fat was estimated with generalized regression equations. Body density for males was measured by the sum of three skinfolds, two girths, and age. Body density for females was measured by the sum of three skinfolds and age. The results from this study revealed that 45.2% of the males and 50.5% of the females were obese. The percent body fat of the female subjects was significantly greater than that of the male subjects. A post hoc analysis revealed that profoundly mentally retarded subjects had significantly lower percent body fat than those subjects functioning at the severe and mild levels. These findings indicate a serious need for more investigation of the caloric intake and expenditure of this population in an institutional environment.

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Dan Nemet

As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity.

Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

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Dan Nemet

Importance:

Little evidence exists on which exercise modality is optimal for obese adolescents. Objective: To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on percentage body fat in overweight and obese adolescents.

Design, Setting, and Participants:

Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial at community-based exercise facilities in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec), Canada, among previously inactive postpubertal adolescents aged 14-18 years (Tanner stage IV or V) with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex or at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular risk factor. Interventions: After a 4-week run-in period, 304 participants were randomized to the following 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

The primary outcome was percentage body fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 months. We hypothesized that aerobic training and resistance training would each yield greater decreases than the control and that combined training would cause greater decreases than aerobic or resistance training alone.

Results:

Decreases in percentage body fat were −0.3 (95% CI, −0.9 to 0.3) in the control group, −1.1 (95% CI, −1.7 to −0.5) in the aerobic training group (p = .06 vs. controls), and −1.6 (95% CI, −2.2 to −1.0) in the resistance training group (p = .002 vs controls). The −1.4 (95% CI, −2.0 to −0.8) decrease in the combined training group did not differ significantly from that in the aerobic or resistance training group. Waist circumference changes were −0.2 (95% CI, −1.7 to 1.2) cm in the control group, −3.0 (95% CI, −4.4 to −1.6) cm in the aerobic group (p = .006 vs controls), −2.2 (95% CI −3.7 to −0.8) cm in the resistance training group (p = .048 vs controls), and −4.1 (95% CI, −5.5 to −2.7) cm in the combined training group. In per-protocol analyses (> 70% adherence), the combined training group had greater changes in percentage body fat (-2.4, 95% CI, −3.2 to −1.6) vs the aerobic group (-1.2; 95% CI, −2.0 to −0.5; p = .04 vs the combined group) but not the resistance group (-1.6; 95% CI, −2.5 to −0.8).

Conclusions and Relevance:

Aerobic, resistance, and combined training reduced total body fat and waist circumference in obese adolescents. In more adherent participants, combined training may cause greater decreases than aerobic or resistance training alone.

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė and Albertas Skurvydas

Obesity has nearly tripled worldwide during the last decades. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight, over 650 million of whom were obese 1 and this number is increasing. Obesity increases the risk of chronic conditions and may be linked to a wide range of psychological problems, 2