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Shelly L. Massingale, Amy D. Alexander, Steven M. Erickson, Elizabeth S. McQueary, Richard D. Gerkin, Sarah B. Schodrof, Haroon M. Kisana and Jamie E. Pardini

Key Points ▸ COBALT is a high-level balance test designed for athletes ages 10–18. ▸ COBALT includes both active head shake and visual motion sensitivity tasks. ▸ Error and sway scores provide objective measurement of balance. Traditional management of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury

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Amanda Sonnega, Amanda Leggett, Renee Pepin and Shervin Assari

month. Further verification of our findings, using objective measurements of both sleep and physical activity, is needed. Relatedly, we were also not able to characterize sedentariness. Our findings actually highlight the importance of capturing this in the survey context (e.g., time spent sitting), as

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Manon L. Dontje, Calum F. Leask, Juliet Harvey, Dawn A. Skelton and Sebastien F.M. Chastin

adults and individuals with dementia ( Berry et al., 2007 ; Browne et al., 2011 ). Combining qualitative research methods with objective measurements of sedentary behavior, referred to as triangulation, micro-macro link, or a mixed-methods approach ( Erzberger & Prein, 1997 ), offers the opportunity to

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Sara Knaeps, Stijn De Baere, Jan Bourgois, Evelien Mertens, Ruben Charlier and Johan Lefevre

values for cardiometabolic markers or covariates, leaving a final sample of 410 (63%). An informed consent was obtained from the participants, and the study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the KU Leuven (s54083). Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep Objective measurement of

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Richard A. Brindle, David Ebaugh and Clare E. Milner

strength test. 5 Thus, we suggest using the MDD values from the present study with a general population. Objective measurements should quantify the intended construct to be valid and useful for clinical decision making. For a measurement of eccentric muscle strength to be valid, it must quantify muscle

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

in our sample presented weak correlation with 6MWT ( r  = .32) and TUG ( r  = −.27). Together with the present study, those reports reinforce the notion that self-administered physical activity questionnaires are also less accurate than objective measurement of physical performance. These findings

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Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park

-analysis revealed that the effect of parent–child PA correlates were greater with objective measurement, compared with those with self-rated questionnaires. 19 However, even in the studies with objective measurement, results ranged from having no significance 23 – 26 to having small 27 – 29 to large correlations

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Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

the uneven distribution of adolescents in each group, with only 7 participants (1.0%) meeting all 3 guidelines, 108 (15.6%) meeting 2, 309 (44.7%) meeting 1, and 268 (38.7%) meeting none. Further studies should include both objective measurements and larger representative sample sizes to determine if

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Lisa Price, Katrina Wyatt, Jenny Lloyd, Charles Abraham, Siobhan Creanor, Sarah Dean and Melvyn Hillsdon

PA that are likely to have been overestimated. If true, it is possible that the actual minimum level of PA required to derive health benefits may be lower than that in current guidelines. The increased accuracy available with objectively collected data 24 and the wider use of objective measurement

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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

heterogeneity, with pooling of remaining studies if residual I 2 was less than 75%. (2) A stratification meta-analysis was conducted for binary variables selected a priori, including subjective measurement/objective measurement, using pedometer/no pedometer, and lifestyle/PA alone, with respect to change in