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Lisa M. Kikulis, Trevor Slack, Bob Hinings and Alan Zimmermann

The theoretical rationale underlying this study was that a variety of structural design types exist in amateur sport organizations and that their structural characteristics may be effectively measured, scaled, and compared. Characteristics were defined along three dimensions of organizational structure: specialization, standardization, and centralization. The approach used to identify the structural design types was the creation of an organizational taxonomy. Based on the measurement of 15 structural scales for 59 provincial sport organizations, Ward’s hierarchical fusion algorithm clustering technique was used to partition these data into homogeneous subsets. Analysis revealed 8 structural design types. The results, while providing support for the idea that there is a trend toward a more professional and bureaucratic form for amateur sport organizations, also suggest that it is important to consider the potential variety in the structural design of these organizations.

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Jesse Sakires, Alison Doherty and Katie Misener

This study examined perceptions and correlates of role ambiguity among sport administrators in voluntary sport organizations. Building on the seminal work of Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964), a multidimensional measure of role ambiguity in the organizational setting was developed for this purpose. The sample consisted of 79 paid staff and 143 volunteer board members from provincial voluntary sport organizations. Respondents completed an online questionnaire that included items pertaining to role ambiguity, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, effort, and demographic variables including age, gender, position, organization tenure, and position tenure. Preliminary support was found for a three-dimensional model of role ambiguity consisting of scope of responsibilities ambiguity, mean-sends knowledge ambiguity, and performance outcomes ambiguity. Role ambiguity was negatively associated with age, job tenure, and organization tenure, with more years of experience reflecting greater role clarity. Greater role ambiguity was also associated with lower levels of satisfaction, organizational commitment, and effort. In addition, ambiguity pertaining to scope of responsibilities was the primary predictor of both satisfaction and organizational commitment, while performance outcomes ambiguity and means-ends knowledge ambiguity significantly predicted effort. Implications for the management of role ambiguity in voluntary sport organizations, and the merits of a multidimensional approach to understanding this phenomenon, are discussed.

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W. James Weese

The areas of leadership and organizational culture continue to capture the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Some suggest that these two areas might hold the key to understanding and predicting organizational effectiveness. Others remain skeptical, offering that effectiveness is determined by a variety of factors, many of which fall beyond the scope of the leader's influence or the culture of the organization. The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to explore the relationships that exist between transformational leadership (measured by the Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, organizational culture (measured by the Culture Strength Assessment), and organizational effectiveness (measured by the Target Population Satisfaction Index) in the campus recreation programs of both the Big Ten and Mid-American Conferences (N = 19). The directors of these programs were given considerable levels of job autonomy to lead their respective programs as well as the opportunity to alter and/or imbed a desired culture during their administration. Significant differences were uncovered in both conferences for executive transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. However, no significant relationship was uncovered between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness. A significant relationship was discovered between organizational culture strength and organizational effectiveness.

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Paul A. Sellars, Lynne Evans and Owen Thomas

This study examined the perfectionism experiences of 10 elite perfectionist athletes (5 male and 5 female). Following completion of the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (Gotwals & Dunn, 2009), a purposeful sample of unhealthy perfectionists were interviewed in relation to the study aims. Several themes emerged from the data that related to: effects of perfectionism and its antecedents on sporting experiences, specificity and level of perfectionism, and the coping skills and techniques used to counter the potentially detrimental effects of perfectionism. The findings highlighted the multidimensional nature of perfectionism and the need for future research to further explore the efficacy of techniques athletes use to promote healthy and reduce unhealthy facets of perfectionism.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn and Ye Hoon Lee

, while neglecting contextual factors that may help individuals use more adaptive strategies ( Duke, Goodman, Treadway, & Breland, 2009 ). Perceived organizational support (POS), or “employees’ perception of the extent to which the organization values their contribution and cares about their well

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

with how a team or athlete wants information covered and the way the media reproduce that information. Media framing researchers have shown that the messages presented by the media are influenced by the media’s self-interests and do not always reflect how the organization or athlete presented the

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Emily A. Hall, Dario Gonzalez and Rebecca M. Lopez

Clinical Scenario Several studies 1 – 4 have examined collegiate athletic trainer job satisfaction from various angles. In addition, advocating for patient-centered medicine has been a prevalent topic in the healthcare community at large. However, research examining the organizational hierarchy of

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Per G. Svensson, Seungmin Kang and Jae-Pil Ha

Research studies examining managerial aspects of sport-based social change efforts by sport for development and peace (SDP) organizations are increasingly available in the sport management literature ( Schulenkorf, 2017 ). For example, researchers have examined the organizational capacity of

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Pasi Koski

The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational effectiveness of Finnish sports clubs (n = 835) from an open systems perspective. Five dimensions of effectiveness were examined, including the ability to obtain resources, internal atmosphere, efficiency of the throughput process, realization of aims, and general level of activity. All dimensions except internal atmosphere were intercorrelated. The findings indicated that many features of effectiveness were largely linked to the size of the membership, ideological orientation, and organizational environment. Success orientation was found to be incompatible with a relaxed atmosphere.

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Leanne Norman

; Kamphoff, Armentrout, & Driska, 2010 ; LaVoi & Dutove, 2012 ; Norman & Rankin-Wright, 2016 ; Norman, Rankin-Wright, & Allison, 2018 ; Shaw & Allen, 2009 ). Instead, the focus of this present study is on women’s role in another level of sport organizations and within the coaching workforce: that of