There is some evidence that people learn academic (declarative) information better when studying with the expectation of having to teach, but this has not been demonstrated for perceptual-motor skills, which also rely on declarative information but more heavily on procedural knowledge. To address this possibility, participants studied golf-putting instructions and practiced putting with the expectation of having to teach another participant how to putt or the expectation of being tested on their putting. One day later, learning was assessed by testing all participants on their golf putting. Results revealed that expecting to teach enhanced learning, even after controlling for the amount of studying and practicing. Therefore, we have presented the first findings that expecting to teach enhances motor learning. Taking these findings together with similar studies focusing on declarative information, we suggest that expecting to teach yields a general learning benefit to different types of skills.
Marcos Daou, Taylor L. Buchanan, Kyle R. Lindsey, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller
The planning and organization of athletic training have historically been much discussed and debated in the coaching and sports science literature. Various influential periodization theorists have devised, promoted, and substantiated particular training-planning models based on interpretation of the scientific evidence and individual beliefs and experiences. Superficially, these proposed planning models appear to differ substantially. However, at a deeper level, it can be suggested that such models share a deep-rooted cultural heritage underpinned by a common set of historically pervasive planning beliefs and assumptions. A concern with certain of these formative assumptions is that, although no longer scientifically justifiable, their shaping influence remains deeply embedded. In recent years substantial evidence has emerged demonstrating that training responses vary extensively, depending upon multiple underlying factors. Such findings challenge the appropriateness of applying generic methodologies, founded in overly simplistic rule-based decision making, to the planning problems posed by inherently complex biological systems. The purpose of this review is not to suggest a whole-scale rejection of periodization theories but to promote a refined awareness of their various strengths and weaknesses. Eminent periodization theorists—and their variously proposed periodization models—have contributed substantially to the evolution of training-planning practice. However, there is a logical line of reasoning suggesting an urgent need for periodization theories to be realigned with contemporary elite practice and modern scientific conceptual models. In concluding, it is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on the design and implementation of sensitive and responsive training systems that facilitate the guided emergence of customized context-specific training-planning solutions.
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Matthew Heath and David A. Westwood
We investigated whether a representation of a visual target can be stored in memory and used to support the online control of reaching movements. To distinguish between the use of a stored target representation for movement planning versus online control, we employed a novel movement environment in which participants could not fully plan their action in advance of movement initiation; that is, the spatial mapping between the movement of a computer mouse and the on-screen movement of a cursor was randomly varied from trial to trial. As such, participants were required to use online control to reach the target position. Reaches were examined in full-vision and three memory-dependent conditions (0, 2, and 5 s of delay). Absolute constant error did not accumulate between full-vision and brief delay trials (i.e., the 0-s delay), suggesting a stored representation of the visual target can be used for online control of reaching given a sufficiently brief delay interval. Longer delay trials (2 and 5 s) were less accurate and more variable than brief delay trials; however, the residual accuracy of these memory-dependent actions suggests that the motor system may have access to a stored representation of the visual target for online control processes for upwards of 5 s following target occlusion.
Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson and M. Blair Evans
may influence their perceptions of teammates’ behavior). To advance our understanding of the social processes that underlie athletes’ decisions to engage in risky behaviors, we used a manipulated peer-response paradigm (MPR-paradigm) to capture athletes’ susceptibility to peer influence. Theoretical
Michael L. Naraine
-exchange paradigm, especially the notion of blockchain and decentralized networks. While Nakamoto’s ( 2008 ) advancement of BTC as a cryptocurrency is certainly novel, the underlying support mechanism known as blockchain is incredibly nuanced and has led to other decentralized movements including ride
Anat V. Lubetzky, Daphna Harel, Helene Darmanin and Ken Perlin
information may lead to loss of balance (LOB) with changes in the environment (e.g., darkness and rapidly moving vehicles). The sensory weighting theory has been supported in multiple studies utilizing an entrainment (i.e., moving along with a stimulus) paradigm. Specifically, Jeka’s group has demonstrated
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
The classroom ecology paradigm ( Doyle, 1977 , 1979 ) is a theoretical lens that has been used to examine why some physical education teachers are more effective than others in terms of facilitating student work and the nature of work that is completed in physical education classes ( Hastie
Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles
research paradigm, we explore the ways in which four Anishinaabekweg runners relate their physical activity to their health and decolonization. Theoretical Framework Suzack, Huhndorf, Perreault, and Barman ( 2010 ) have argued that feminism, especially in academia, remains white-centered; therefore, they
Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
The classroom ecology paradigm ( Doyle, 1979 , 1986 ) has proven to be a useful theoretical lens through which physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty can help preservice teachers (PTs) learn to teach. PETE faculty who have used this lens have either drawn from the limited amount of