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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Toshiki Ohta, Izumi Tabata and Yumiko Mochizuki

Edited by Wojtek J. Chodzko-Zajko

The Japanese National Physical Activity and Health Promotion Guidelines were compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan. A broad definition of physical activity was adopted in this report. Objectives of physical activity were (a) maintaining and promoting health, (b) preventing and treating disease, (c) reducing stress, (d) promoting development in childhood, (e) maintaining and improving independence in older people, (f) managing symptoms associated with menopause, and (g) promoting general psychological well-being.

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Kindal A. Shores and Stephanie T. West

Background:

While considerable attention has been given to quantifying leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among subpopulations, less attention has focused on the perception of the experience as leisure. The current study describes the prevalence of leisure-like experiences during LTPA among college students. We describe the social contexts and activity settings that contribute to participant enjoyment of LTPA since enjoyment has been linked to participation and adherence.

Methods:

Data were collected from 192 undergraduate students using a short questionnaire and 2 days of time diaries.

Results:

Respondents spent nearly equal time working, sleeping, and engaged in discretionary activities. Students reported 512 minutes of discretionary time each day, of which 77 minutes were spent in LTPA and 68% was classified by respondents as leisure. Active sports/ exercise (including aerobics and weight lifting), walking, and dancing at bars or parties were the most frequent LTPA choices. When LTPA involved the presence of human companions, activities were more likely to be perceived by respondents as leisure experiences. Physical activities undertaken at public parks, bars/dance clubs and private recreation centers were also more likely to be perceived as leisure experiences.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate that social instead of traditional exercise activities may motivate LTPA participation among college students. For example, results suggest the importance of dancing in this population.

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Ashley B. West, Adam R. Konopka, Kelli A. LeBreton, Benjamin F. Miller, Karyn L. Hamilton and Heather J. Leach

designed to improve dietary habits and increase physical activity (PA) ( Cowie et al., 2009 ; Penn et al., 2009 ; Rossen et al., 2015 ). Interventions that include PA demonstrate as much as 50% reductions in the likelihood of developing Type II diabetes ( Colberg et al., 2010 ; Diabetes Prevention

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Urska Arnautovska, Frances O’Callaghan and Kyra Hamilton

In response to the aging of the global population and the significant implications for current health systems ( WHO, 2012 ), governments have been encouraged to facilitate physical activity (PA) as one of the key drivers supporting healthy aging ( WHO, 2002 ). There is evidence that PA has

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Carlos J. Crespo, Mario R. Garcia-Palmieri, Ellen Smit, I-Min Lee, Daniel McGee, Paola Muti, Nayda R. Figueroa Valle, Farah A. Ramirez-Marrero, Jo L. Freudenheim and Paul Sorlie

Studies on the association between physical activity and fatal prostate cancer have produced inconclusive results. The Puerto Rico Heart Health Program was a cohort study of a randomly selected sample of 9824 men age 35 to 79 years at baseline who were followed for mortality until 2002. Multiple examinations collected information on lifestyle, diet, body composition, exercise, urban-rural residence, and smoking habits. Physical activity status was measured using the Framingham Physical Activity Index, an assessment of occupational, leisure-time, and other physical activities measured as usual activity over the course of a 24-hour day. Physical activity was strati-fed into quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of physical activity with prostate cancer mortality. Other covariates included age, education, urban-rural residence, smoking, and body mass index. Compared with the lowest level of physical activity (Q1), the risk of prostate cancer mortality was OR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.64–1.55) for Q2, OR = 1.34 (95% CI = 0.88–2.05) for Q3, and OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.75–1.90) for Q4. Further analyses by age group, overweight status, or vigorous physical activity also did not show a significant association between physical activity and prostate cancer mortality. Physical activity did not predict prostate cancer mortality in this group of Puerto Rican men.

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Gary S. Goldfield, Katherine Henderson, Annick Buchholz, Nicole Obeid, Hien Nguyen and Martine F. Flament

Objective:

To examine the association between volume and intensity of physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image in a large sample of adolescents in Ottawa and surrounding region.

Methods:

A total of 1259 (n = 746 girls and n = 513 boys) students responded to surveys on leisure time PA, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and body image.

Results:

A dose response effect of intensity of PA and psychological distress was observed whereby those who performed greater bouts of vigorous PA exhibited better psychological adjustment than adolescents engaging in mild to moderate intensity activity. Gender impacted the results as vigorous PA was associated with reduced depression but not anxiety in boys, and reduced anxiety but not depression in girls. The positive association between total volume of PA and psychological functioning in the overall sample was no longer significant when gender was considered, except for reduced anxiety in girls.

Conclusions:

Vigorous PA was associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, anxiety and improvements in body esteem in adolescents, but these associations were differentially influenced by gender. Future research is needed to elucidate the efficacy of vigorous PA as a treatment for mental health problems in male and female adolescents.

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Christine Kimber, Eydie Abercrombie, Jacqueline N. Epping, LeeAnn Mordecai, Jimmy Newkirk Jr. and Michael Ray

Background:

Physical activity has emerged as a distinct area of public health practice. As this field evolved, the need for a professional organization for physical activity practitioners in public health became evident. A collaboration of several existing public health professional organizations formed to address this new area of public health practice. The collaboration laid the foundation to establish a professional organization. National Association of Physical Activity Practitioners in Public Health (NSPAPPH) was launched in April 2006. NSPAPPH accomplishments to date include convening a national meeting of physical activity practitioners, conducting strategic planning, adopting bylaws and core competencies for professional practice, developing a website and electronic newsletter, and establishing training opportunities for practitioners.

Conclusions:

Future plans for NSPAPPH include development of a professional certification for physical activity practitioners in public health; enhancement of training and professional development opportunities; recruitment of members from national, tribal, state, and local organizations working in public and private sectors; publications of journal articles, reports, and issue briefs; and development of a policy agenda. Implementing these plans will serve to strengthen public health infrastructure for physical activity, thus improving the physical activity behaviors of Americans and the health of the nation.

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

). Rural-residing OA make up approximately 20% of the OA population of the United States ( National Rural Health Association [NRHA], 2011 ). Rural-residing OA report lower frequency of physical activity ( Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [BRFSS], 2013 ) and have worse physical health, decreased

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Deborah Cohen, Molly Scott, Frank Zhen Wang, Thomas L. McKenzie and Dwayne Porter

Building design and grounds might contribute to physical activity, and youth spend much of their daylight hours at school. We examined the associations among school building footprints, the size of school grounds, and in-school physical activity of 1566 sixth-grade girls from medium to large middle schools enrolled in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). The school building footprint and the number of active outdoor amenities were associated with physical activity among adolescent girls. On average, the school footprint size accounted for 4% of all light physical activity and 16% of all MET-weight moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA) during school hours. Active outdoor amenities accounted for 29% of all MW-MVPA during school. School design appears to be associated with physical activity, but it is likely that programming (eg, physical education, intramurals, club sports), social factors, and school siting are more important determinants of total physical activity.