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Osarhiemen A. Omwanghe, Devin S. Muntz, Soyang Kwon, Simone Montgomery, Opeyemi Kemiki, Lewis L. Hsu, Alexis A. Thompson and Robert I. Liem

Purpose:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) significantly affects physical functioning. We examined physical activity (PA) patterns in children with SCD versus a national sample and factors associated with PA and participation in physical education and organized sports.

Method:

One hundred children with SCD completed a 58-item survey with questions from the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Physical Activity Questionnaire and others on physical education and sports, disease impact, and physical functioning.

Results:

Compared with NHANES participants, more children with SCD (67 vs 42%, p < .01) reported doing at least 10 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA)/week. Children with SCD also reported spending more days in MVPA (2.3 vs. 1.4 days/week, p < .01). However, fewer reported spending ³ 60 min/day in either vigorous PA (VPA) (24 vs. 43%, p = .01) or MVPA (17 vs 23%, p < .01). In addition, 90% and 48% of children with SCD participated in physical education and sports, respectively. Greater disease impact on PA and physical functioning were associated with lower participation.

Conclusion:

Children with SCD are active at moderate to vigorous intensity for shorter durations. Negative personal beliefs about disease impact and poor physical functioning represent barriers to PA in SCD.

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Anthony P. Marsh, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton, Cristal L. Brown, Edward Ip and Jack M. Guralnik

Lateral mobility is integral to many activities of daily living involving transfer from one position to another. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and test–retest reliability of a lateral-mobility (LATMOB) task for older adults. Measurements of lateral mobility, balance, and strength and self-reported and performance-based physical functioning were obtained in 63 women and 77 men ≥50 years of age. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with age, knee-extensor strength, grip strength, functional reach, and one-leg-stance time. Test–retest reliability of the task was excellent. The LATMOB task was highly correlated with the car task. Balance was significantly correlated with time to get into and out of a car and performance on the LATMOB task. The LATMOB task was significantly correlated with the Short Physical Performance Battery score. The LATMOB task is valid and reliable, but additional work is needed to assess its sensitivity to change and predictive validity.

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Anthony P. Marsh, Michael E. Miller, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton and Stephen B. Kritchevsky

It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 ± 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at ~70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed “as fast as possible,” whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2–3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2–3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST.

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Sarah L. West, Adam Gassas, Tal Schechter, R. Maarten Egeler, Paul C. Nathan and Greg D. Wells

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (SCT) is increasingly used to treat children with cancer, and survival following SCT is improving. One predominant consequence of childhood cancer therapy is increased physical morbidity, which is worse in pediatric SCT recipients compared with children treated with chemotherapy or radiation alone. There are many factors that contribute to exercise intolerance and reduced physical function during the pretransplant, peritransplant, and posttransplant phases. These include side effects from chemotherapy or radiation, excessive immobility due to bed rest, infections, the negative effects of immunosuppressants, and graft vs host disease, all of which can impair cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and muscle function. Few studies have investigated the effects of exercise in childhood SCT recipients. In a small number of published studies, exercise interventions have been demonstrated to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, preserve or increase muscle mass, and improve muscle strength in children following SCT. The use of exercise as medicine may be a noninvasive and nonpharmaceutical treatment to target physical complications post-SCT. Researchers and health-care professionals should work together to develop exercise prescription guidelines for this unique and important population.

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Charlotte H. Worm, Esther Vad, Lis Puggaard, Henrik Støvring, Jens Lauritsen and Jakob Kragstrup

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on basic daily functions and muscle strength in community-dwelling frail older people. The randomized, controlled study comprised 46 community-dwelling frail older people (above 74 years of age and not able to leave their home without mobility aids). For 12 weeks the intervention group (n = 22) was transported to 2 class-based exercise sessions each week. Assessment of physical function was obtained using Berg's Balance Scale and a walking test. Self-reported functional ability was assessed through SF-36. Maximal oxygen uptake and maximal voluntary contraction of the shoulders' abductors were measured. The intervention group had a significant improvement in balance, muscle strength, walking function, and self-assessed functional ability compared with the control group. This study demonstrates that multicomponent exercise has a significant effect on basic daily functions and muscle strength in community-dwelling frail older people and might improve their ability to live an independent life.

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Melissa Moore, Jeni Warburton, Paul D. O’Halloran, Nora Shields and Kingsley

The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the characteristics and effectiveness of community-based interventions designed to increase physical activity participation in older adults (aged 65 years or more) living in rural or regional areas. Relevant peer-reviewed literature was obtained, using four primary electronic search engines, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The initial search identified 4,690 articles. After removal of duplicates and excluded articles, seven articles were included in the review. Few consistencies existed between intervention types, duration, outcome measures, and follow-up. Results provide some evidence to support the effectiveness of community-based interventions that include low- to moderate-intensity exercise to increase physical activity, physical function, and psychological state. However, without more rigorous studies it is difficult to identify the most critical characteristics of community-based interventions for older adults in rural and regional settings.

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Roger J. Paxton, Caitlin Feldman-Kothe, Megan K. Trabert, Leah N. Hitchcock, Raoul F. Reiser II and Brian L. Tracy

Introduction:

The purpose was to determine the effect of peripheral neuropathy (PN) on motor output variability for ankle muscles of older adults, and the relation between ankle motor variability and postural stability in PN patients.

Methods:

Older adults with (O-PN) and without PN (O), and young adults (Y) underwent assessment of standing postural stability and ankle muscle force steadiness.

Results:

O-PN displayed impaired ankle muscle force control and postural stability compared with O and Y groups. For O-PN, the amplitude of plantarflexor force fluctuations was moderately correlated with postural stability under no-vision conditions (r = .54, p = .01).

Discussion:

The correlation of variations in ankle force with postural stability in PN suggests a contribution of ankle muscle dyscontrol to the postural instability that impacts physical function for older adults with PN.

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Kanako Shimoura, Yasuaki Nakayama, Yuto Tashiro, Takayuki Hotta, Yusuke Suzuki, Seishiro Tasaka, Tomofumi Matsushita, Keisuke Matsubara, Mirei Kawagoe, Takuya Sonoda, Yuki Yokota and Tomoki Aoyama

frequent injuries. The present results imply that the DS and HS tests would be effective for straightforward assessment of physical function-related injury in basketball players. These 2 tests may be useful in initially assessing general movement dysfunction before a deep screen, because it takes ~5

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Lotta Palmberg, Erja Portegijs, Taina Rantanen, Eeva Aartolahti, Anne Viljanen, Mirja Hirvensalo and Merja Rantakokko

). Previous findings show that going outdoors into the neighborhood at least once a week can help to maintain physical function among frail older people ( Shimada et al., 2010 ), but going outdoors daily increases the probability of positive health outcomes even further ( Jacobs et al., 2008 ). We studied

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Shannon L. Mihalko and Edward McAuley

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine (a) the effects of upper body high-intensity strength training on muscular strength, activities of daily living (ADLs), and subjective well-being within an aging population, and (b) whether changes in strength were related to subsequent changes in subjective well-being and ADLs. The main effects of the training program were significant for all five individual muscle groups examined, indicating that subjects who participated in the strength program had greater increases in muscular strength than did controls. There was limited support for the contention that strength training enhances subjective well-being and ADLs in older adults. Strength gains were related to moderate reductions in negative affect, greater satisfaction with life, and higher ADLs. Findings are discussed in terms of design and measurement improvements, the need to focus research efforts on multiple components of fitness in relation to subjective well-being, and relations among strength and ADLs in the elderly.