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Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert

Physical activity (PA) is positively associated with affective well-being in adults. This study investigated the moderating role of the competence for PA-related affect regulation in the PA–affect association in real-life situations. A total of 37 women and 27 men completed an ecological momentary assessment study in which the authors used accelerometers to record PA and e-diaries to collect data on affective well-being on 4 study days. They applied multilevel analyses to estimate the within-person effects of PA on affective well-being and cross-level interactions between PA (within person) and PA-related affect regulation (between persons). Results revealed cross-level interaction effects between within-person PA variations and competence for PA-related affect regulation on the affect dimensions of calmness (p < .01) and valence (p = .04). Thus, the competence for PA-related affect regulation moderates the PA–affect association in real-life situations. Therefore, individual-based PA promotion should consider these individual differences to develop tailored interventions.

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Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer

physically and affectively) would only have the danger of “inert knowledge.” Related Constructs in the Literature In addition to the rationale of our use of the competence concept, we want to clarify the relationship of the PAHCO concept to the research areas of health literacy (HL) and physical literacy (PL

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Maureen R. Weiss

physical literacy, and (5) employing a positive youth development (PYD) approach for improving motor and social-emotional skills. First, we can collaborate by conducting more theory-driven studies that include competence, social, and affective components of physical activity motivation. This could include

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Avery D. Faigenbaum

approach to youth resistance training will likely have an added benefit of enhancing physical literacy and reducing the risk of sport-related injury ( 8 , 28 ). Behm et al raised awareness about the effectiveness of resistance training on performance measures and the importance of initiating youth programs

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Richard Larouche, Meghann Lloyd, Emily Knight and Mark S. Tremblay

The current investigation assessed the impact of active school transportation (AST) on average daily step counts, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 315 children in Grades 4–6 who participated to Cycle 2 of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) pilot testing. T-tests revealed a significant association between AST and lower BMI values (18.7 ± 3.3 vs. 19.9 ± 3.8 kg/m2). The active commuters accumulated an average of 662 more steps per day, and their waist circumference was lower by an average of 3.1 cm, but these differences were not statistically significant. ANCOVA analyses controlling for age and step counts, found trends toward lower BMI and waist circumference values among the active commuters. These results suggest that AST may be a valid strategy to prevent childhood obesity; further research is needed to determine more precisely the impact of AST on body composition, and the direction of the relationship.

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Rebecca J. Lloyd

Purpose:

To explore a conceptual shift from mechanism, the dominant ‘body-as-machine’ (Tinning, 2010) paradigm, to vitalism, the philosophical phenomenological tenets of physical literacy (Whitehead, 2010) upon which the curriculum of physical education in Canada is based, within the context of an alternative physical education program.

Method:

A motion-sensitive phenomenological approach (Lloyd & Smith, 2006b; 2015), conceptually framed by the Function2Flow (F2F) model, was conducted with a sample of N = 153 students from seven different schools in Ottawa (Canada) who booked the JungleSport climbing program of their own accord. Sources of information included phenomenological observations, small group interviews, and journal entries. Exemplars of two in depth student experiences are featured in this article.

Results & Discussion:

The phenomenological analysis of the climbing experiences, in addition to the F2F curriculum support tools that were developed, provide practical and philosophical pathways for understanding how we may broaden assessments of learning in physical education.

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Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee and Weidong Li

The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.

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Jo Inchley, Jo Kirby and Candace Currie

The purpose of this study was to examine adolescents’ physical self-perceptions and their associations with physical activity using a longitudinal perspective. Utilizing data from the Physical Activity in Scottish Schoolchildren (PASS) study, changes in exercise self-efficacy, perceived competence, global self-esteem and physical self-worth were assessed among a sample of 641 Scottish adolescents from age 11–15 years. Girls reported lower levels of perceived competence, self-esteem and physical self-worth than boys at each age. Furthermore, girls’ physical self-perceptions decreased markedly over time. Among boys, only perceived competence decreased, while global self-esteem increased. Baseline physical activity was a significant predictor of later activity levels for both genders. Findings demonstrate the importance of physical self-perceptions in relation to physical activity behavior among adolescents. Among older boys, high perceived competence increased the odds of being active by 3.8 times. Among older girls, high exercise self-efficacy increased the odds of being active by 5.2 times. There is a need for early interventions which promote increased physical literacy and confidence, particularly among girls.

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Richard Tyler, Marianne Mannello, Rebecca Mattingley, Chris Roberts, Robert Sage, Suzan R Taylor, Malcolm Ward, Simon Williams and Gareth Stratton

Background:

This is the second Active Healthy Kids Wales Report Card. The 2016 version consolidates and translates research related to physical activity (PA) among children and youth in Wales, and aims to raise the awareness of children’s engagement in PA and sedentary behaviors.

Methods:

Ten PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids—Canada Report Card methodology involving a synthesis and expert consensus of the best available evidence.

Results:

Grades were assigned as follows: Overall PA, D+; Organized Sport Participation, C; Active and Outdoor Play, C; Active Transportation, C; Sedentary Behaviors, D-; Physical Literacy, INC; Family and Peer Influences, D+; School, B; Community and the Built Environment, C; and National Government Policy, Strategies, and Investments, B-.

Conclusions:

Despite the existence of sound policies, programs, and infrastructure, PA levels of children and youth in Wales are one of the lowest and sedentary behavior one of the highest globally. From the 2014 Report Card, the Family and Peer Influences grade improved from D to D+, whereas Community and the Built Environment dropped from B to C. These results indicate that a concerted effort is required to increase PA and decrease sedentary time in children and young people in Wales.

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Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Allana G. LeBlanc, John C. Spence and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the most comprehensive assessment of child and youth physical activity in Canada and provides an update or “state of the nation” that assesses how Canada is doing at promoting and facilitating physical activity opportunities for children and youth. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card.

Methods:

Twelve physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.

Results:

Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity: D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation: B; Active Play: D+; Active Transportation: D; Physical Literacy: D+; Sleep: B; Sedentary Behaviors: F), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C+; School: B; Community and Environment: A-), and Strategies and Investments (Government: B-; Nongovernment: A-).

Conclusions:

Similar to previous years of the Report Card, Canada generally received good grades for indicators relating to investment, infrastructure, strategies, policies, and programming, and poor grades for behavioral indicators (eg, Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors).