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Helmi Chaabène, Emerson Franchini, Bianca Miarka, Mohamed Amin Selmi, Bessem Mkaouer and Karim Chamari


The aim of this study was to measure and compare physiological and time–motion variables during karate fighting and to assess eventual differences between winners and defeated elite karatekas in an ecologically valid environment.


Fourteen elite male karatekas who regularly participated in national and international events took part in a national-level competition.


There were no significant differences between winners and defeated karatekas regarding all the studied variables. Karatekas used more upper-limb (76.19%) than lower-limb techniques (23.80%). The kisami-zuki represented the most frequent technique, with 29.1% of all used techniques. The duration of each fighting activity ranged from <1 s to 5 s, with 83.8% ± 12.0% of the actions lasting less than 2 s. Karatekas executed 17 ± 7 high-intensity actions per fight, which corresponded to ~6 high-intensity actions per min. Action-to-rest ratio was about 1:1.5, and high-intensityaction- to-rest ratio was ~1:10. The mean blood lactate response at 3 min postcombat (Lapost) elicited during karate fighting was 11.18 ± 2.21 mmol/L (difference between Lapre and Lapost = 10.01 ± 1.81 mmol/L). Mean heart rate (HR) was 177 ± 14 beats/min (91% ± 5% of HRpeak). Karatekas spent 65% of the time exercising at HR >90% of the individual HRpeak.


Karatekas predominantly use upper-limb karate techniques. Karate’s nature is intermittent, with fighting activities representing ~6% of total combat’s duration and ~84% of actions lasting less than 2 s, with ~21-s mean time interval in between. Kumite combat sessions induced high La and near-maximal cardiovascular strain. Other key success factors should be investigated to properly discriminate winners and defeated athletes.

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Kathleen Woolf, Wendy K. Bidwell and Amanda G. Carlson

The study examined caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) vs. placebo during anaerobic exercise. Eighteen male athletes (24.1 ± 5.8 yr; BMI 26.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2) completed a leg press, chest press, and Wingate test. During the caffeine trial, more total weight was lifted with the chest press, and a greater peak power was obtained during the Wingate test. No differences were observed between treatments for the leg press and average power, minimum power, and power drop (Wingate test). There was a significant treatment main effect found for postexercise glucose and insulin concentrations; higher concentrations were found in the caffeine trial. A significant interaction effect (treatment and time) was found for cortisol and glucose concentrations; both increased with caffeine and decreased with placebo. Postexercise systolic blood pressure was significantly higher during the caffeine trial. No differences were found between treatments for serum free-fatty-acid concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Thus, a moderate dose of caffeine resulted in more total weight lifted for the chest press and a greater peak power attained during the Wingate test in competitive athletes.

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Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.

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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy

of our knowledge, our study is the first to compare the psychological and physiological responses to self-paced exercise in different environments (outdoor vs. indoor) among sedentary obese individuals and contributes to an important gap in the literature concerning the effectiveness of self

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

due to the wide variation in the mechanical properties of AT systems reported by previous works. 9 – 11 Thus, soccer players seem to run faster and perform more high-intensity actions on harder surfaces while the softer systems are associated with a greater physiological responses. 3 , 11 Most

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Bruna M.A. Saraiva, Geferson S. Araujo, Evandro F. Sperandio, Alberto O. Gotfryd, Victor Z. Dourado and Milena C. Vidotto

of this study are to 1) evaluate the walked distance and physiological responses during ISWT in patients with different degrees of AIS compared with control group and 2) evaluate the respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function, and its correlations with the physiological responses during ISWT

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Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Theodoros I. Platanou and Argyris G. Toubekis

physiological responses during training have never been examined. Moreover, it remains unknown whether water polo–specific high-intensity training in the form of counterattacks (ie, ball drills) can attain similar physiological responses to that observed after swim-based training, so that it could be used as an

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

assessed whether concomitant physiological responses are equivalent to those of healthy individuals. The question arises whether postures that are normally regarded as SB in able-bodied persons evoke comparable physiological responses in adults with stroke or CP who often have balance problems and

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Barry S. Mason, Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Michael J. Hutchinson, Monique A.M. Berger and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

explored the physical and technical responses to different court dimensions during able-bodied (AB) 3v3 basketball. 14 – 16 Increased activity profiles and physiological responses were observed during 3v3 on a FC, 16 whereas the frequency of technical actions performed increased on a HC. 14 , 15 However

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Aitor Iturricastillo, Javier Yanci and Cristina Granados

, which suggests that the physiological demands could be similar to those of a real game ( Yanci, Iturricastillo, & Granados, 2014 ). However, to our knowledge, there is no study with the aim of describing the neuromuscular load and physiological responses. Fatigue is a complex concept, involving both