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Cora Lynn Craig

Background:

Low levels of physical activity (PA) and fitness have long been a government concern in Canada; however, more than half of adults are inactive. This article examines factors influencing policy development and implementation using Canadian PA policy as a case study.

Methods:

Current and historical PA policy documents were amassed from a literature review, audit of government and non government websites and from requests to government officials in each jurisdiction directly responsible for PA. These were analyzed to determine policy content, results, barriers, and success factors.

Results:

The national focus for PA policy in Canada has devolved to a multilevel system that meets most established criteria for successful strategies. Earlier PA targets have been met; however, the prevalence of PA decreased from 2005 to 2007. Annual per capita savings in health care associated with achieving the earlier target is estimated at $6.15 per capita, yet a fraction of that is directed to promoting PA.

Conclusion:

Evidenced-based strategies that address multiple policy agendas using sector-specific approaches are needed. Sustained high-level commitment is required; advocacy grounded in metrics and science is needed to increase the profile of the issue and increase the commitments to PA policies in Canada and internationally.

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Ian Henry, Mahfoud Amara, Mansour Al-Tauqi and Ping Chao Lee

This article provides a four-fold typology of comparative sports policy studies: Type 1, Seeking Similarities, is a nomothetic approach seeking law-like generalization; Type 2 is Describing Difference, an ideographic approach seeking to capture the specificity of policy systems; Type 3, Theorizing the Transnational, goes beyond the nation-state as the unit of analysis to fuse global and local levels of explanation; and Type 4, Defining Discourse, seeks to analyze ways in which policy discourse defines the reality of the policy problems it seeks to address. The authors underline the ontological and epistemological assumptions of such approaches that are often only implicit, and they employ selected examples to illustrate the contribution to knowledge of the different approaches.

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Lindsey Cox, Victoria Berends, James F. Sallis, Jessica Marie St. John, Betsy McNeil, Martin Gonzalez and Peggy Agron

Background:

Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies.

Methods:

California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools.

Results:

Board members’ highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs.

Conclusions:

Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.

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Matthew Juravich and Brian M. Mills

administrators and coaches as well as player resources. We focus our analyses on schools comprising NCAA Division 1 men’s basketball, as those teams have been directly impacted by an exogenous policy shock dictated to them by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Specifically, we investigate the “one

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Michael B. Hudson

It can be challenging deciding how to resolve personal and professional dilemmas, and the dilemmas that athletic trainers and athletic therapists experience are no different, if not more complex, than the dilemmas other health care professionals experience. The moral behaviors individuals demonstrate with these dilemmas come from their experiences; however, moral beliefs may not always coincide with professional obligations and ethics. The purpose of this article is to examine factors that influence decision making for athletic trainers and athletic therapists to identify and describe policies for guiding moral behaviors in the workplace. These key policies include education in ethical decision making, developing a workplace code of conduct, communicating policies regarding professional behaviors, appraising accepted values and behaviors in the workplace, and investigating possible ethical violations and applying appropriate sanctions.

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Henk Erik Meier and Cosima von Uechtriz

, it attempted to contribute to the debate about the future of women’s soccer by examining the long-term impact of these struggles and their policy outcomes on the popularity of women’s soccer as a form of sport entertainment. To do so, the account presented here has adopted a quantitative perspective

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Marijke Taks and Laura Misener

In this case, a local sport tourism officer has been asked to prepare a recommendation for Evex City Council regarding which types of events the city should bid for, based on their public policy agenda of enhancing tourism for economic development purposes and stimulating sport participation for residents. A questionnaire, a codebook, and a data set from two events, an international figure skating event and a provincial gymnastics event, are provided to assist in making a decision. The data set includes the spectators’ identification with and motives for attending the events, tourism activities in which they participated, and some sociodemographic variables. Analyses of the data and interpretation of the results should assist the sport tourism officer in providing accurate recommendations to policymakers. Theories and frameworks that underpin this case include public policy schemas; identity, motives, and tourism behavior of event attendees; sport participation outcomes from sport events; leveraging; and event portfolios.

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James H. Conn

The present study investigated the extent of coverage and distribution of policy content within selected interscholastic athletic handbooks. A total of 400 high schools in the U.S., each state represented by 8 schools, were systematically selected to participate in the study. Each high school was asked to submit its athletic handbook to be examined for content. The content was tabulated in the categories of personnel, student athletes and cheerleaders, medical treatment and safety, organization and governance, public relations, management of events, facilities/equipment/suppiies, fiscal management, and transportation. To determine the uniformity of distribution between major categories and within subcategories, chi square tests of goodness-of-fit were used. Some 40% of the policy statements were found in the categories of personnel (22.9%) and student athletes and cheerleaders (18.0%). Less than 10% of the total were found in fiscal management (4.7%) and transportation (3.6%).

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David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.

Methods:

We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.

Results:

Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).

Conclusions:

Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.

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Richard R. Suminski, W.S.C. Poston and Melissa L. Hyder

Background:

Basic information is needed to develop strategies for promoting physical activity (PA) in small business. This preliminary study described small business policies encouraging PA.

Methods:

Interviews were completed at 98 small businesses (5–100 employees) in 2003. Business policies encouraging PA participation by employees and the public were assessed. Stage of Change was used to describe intentions to develop such policies.

Results:

A total of 53 PA policies (12 employee; 41 public) existed. The most common employee policy was incentives for gym memberships (41.7%). The most popular public policy was sport team sponsorships (60.1%). Most businesses (60.2%) were not thinking about creating a policy for PA while 33.7% had a policy in place (20.4% > 6 months).

Conclusion:

Small businesses have few PA policies and most are not thinking about such policies. Research should determine why this is the case and what approaches could stimulate the development of PA policies.