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Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder and Catharine Evers

Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.

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Paul Head, Mark Waldron, Nicola Theis and Stephen David Patterson

stimulating electrodes over muscle motor points. 15 These parameters have not been utilized in previous NMES and BFR studies on the quadriceps. 12 , 13 In addition, the vast majority of studies have implemented BFR by prescribing an arbitrary restrictive pressure 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 or based their occlusion

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Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

mortality ( Ezzati et al., 2005 ) and are considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide (13.5% of all deaths; Lawes, Vander Hoorn, & Rodgers, 2008 ). Therefore, controlling blood pressure (BP) levels may be fundamental to the prevention of cardiovascular events in an aging population. Regular

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Mikko Virmavirta and Paavo V. Komi

The Paromed Datalogger® with two insole pressure transducers (16 sensors each, 200 Hz) was applied to study the feasibility of the system for measurement of plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. The specific aim was to test the sensitivity of the Paromed system to the changes in plantar pressure distribution in ski jumping. Three international level ski jumpers served as subjects during the testing of the system. The Datalogger was fixed to the jumpers’ lower back under the jumping suit. A separate pulse was transmitted to the Datalogger and tape recorder in order to synchronize the logger information with photocell signals indicating the location of the jumper on the inrun. Test procedure showed that this system could be used in ski jumping with only minor disturbance to the jumper. The measured relative pressure increase during the inrun curve matched well the calculated relative centrifugal force (mv2 · r‒1), which thus serves a rough estimation of the system validity. Strong increase in pressure under the big toes compared to the heels (225% and 91%, respectively) with large interindividual differences characterized the take-off. These differences may reflect an unstable anteroposterior balance of a jumper while he tries to create a proper forward rotation for a good flight position.

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Daniel F. Gucciardi, Jay-Lee Longbottom, Ben Jackson and James A. Dimmock

Although researchers have experimentally examined the mechanisms underlying pressure-induced forms of suboptimal performance, or “choking under pressure,” there is a lack of research exploring the personal experience of this phenomenon. In an attempt to fill this void in the literature, this study explored experienced golfers’ perceptions of the choking experience within a personal construct psychology (Kelly, 1955/1991) framework. Both male and female golfers participated in either a focus group (n = 12; all males) or one-on-one interview (n = 10; female = 7, male = 3) using experience cycle methodology (Oades & Viney, 2000) to describe their perceptions of the choking experience. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed using grounded theory analytical techniques (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). Analyses revealed five central categories representing the personal experience of choking under pressure: antecedents, personal investment, choking event, consequences, and learning experiences. The findings reported here suggest that the choking phenomenon, which can involve acute or chronic bouts of suboptimal performance (relative to the performance expectations of the athlete), is a complex process involving the interplay of several cognitive, attentional, emotional, and situational factors. Implications of the findings for a construct definition of choking are discussed, and several applied considerations are offered.

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

execution at a reduced cognitive cost (e.g.,  Willingham, 1998 ). However, even after automatization, skill execution is not flawless, and from time to time, so-called choking (i.e., movement failures under pressure) can occur even in the most skilled professionals ( Baumeister, 1984 ). A motor learning

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari and Mohamad Parnianpour

, 2007 ; Reeves, Everding, Cholewicki, & Morrisette, 2006 ). One of the most common methods for assessing postural stability is to record center of pressure (CoP) excursions during quiet standing in response to balance perturbation caused by support surface manipulation (e.g., standing on a hard surface

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Valentina Agostini, Emma Chiaramello and Marco Knaflitz

Static posturography provides an objective assessment of postural control by characterizing the body sway during upright standing. The center of pressure (COP) signal is recorded by a force platform, and it is analyzed by means of many different models and techniques. Most of the parameters calculated according to these different approaches are affected by relevant intra- and intersubject variability or do not have a clear physiological interpretation. Traditional approaches decompose the COP signal into anteroposterior and mediolateral time series, corresponding to ankle plantar/dorsiflexion and hip adduction/abduction, respectively. In this study we hypothesized that COP signals show inherent rotational characteristics. To verify our hypothesis we applied the rotary spectra analysis to the two-dimensional COP signal to decompose it into clockwise and counterclockwise rotational components. We demonstrated the presence of rotational components in the COP signal of healthy subjects, providing a reference data set of the spectral characteristics of these components.

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

Figure skaters are evaluated on the execution of challenging technical skills as well as how those skills are packaged with other performance components, including costume, music, choreography, and physical appearance ( Cummins, 2007 ). Male and female skaters report experiencing pressure from a

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Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose

; Messner & Musto, 2014 ; Qvortrup et al., 2009 ), we evaluate three possible mechanisms behind the gendering of taste that receive increasing attention in sports sociology: gender identity, pressure to conform to gender stereotypes and gender role attitudes ( Boiché, Plaza, Chalabaev, Guillet