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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

, limiting venous blood flow with a pressure cuff inflated proximately around the limb), which has also gained popularity in recent years in the sporting context. 7 Several studies have found an improved ability to perform sprints after BFR training compared with “traditional” training. 8 – 10 For instance

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

-response profile as defined by O’Connor et al. ( 1995 ; all EDI-2 subscales scores ≤2 and a perfectionist score ≥9), but no subjects were excluded due to a fake EDI profile. Assessment of Blood Pressure After 5 min of rest, blood pressure was measured twice in a lying position with an electronic sphygmomanometer

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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

of determining responsiveness to caffeine on the basis of its effects on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). However, it might be risky to identify the responsiveness to caffeine based on MAP evaluation alone, since this would rely on just one and, possibly, not always observable 12 of the several

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

at the predefined reference points (i.e., 1 and 4 mmol/L) and diastolic, systolic, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during the incremental exercise. Maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ; placebo: 49.1 ± 6.2 vs. blackcurrant 49.7 ± 6

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

, of meals may be associated with gut comfort, although small meals consumed before and during flight are reported to be better tolerated than larger meals ( Armstrong, 2006 ; Loat & Rodes, 1989 ). The pressure and dryness of cabin air increase insensible fluid losses ( Leatherwood & Dragoo, 2013

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Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols

environment, buoyancy, hydrodynamic resistance, and hydrostatic pressure are all experienced by the individual ( Pendergast, Moon, Krasney, Held, & Zamparo, 2015 ). Buoyancy has an unloading effect on the body joints submerged in the water, reducing the effect of gravity and compressive forces ( Pendergast et

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William A. Sands, Jeni R. McNeal, Michael H. Stone, G. Gregory Haff and Ann M. Kinser

Serious stretching in many sports involves discomfort and is often an early ceiling on improvements.


To continue investigation of the use of vibration to enhance acute range of motion while assessing the influence of vibration and stretching on pressure-to-pain threshold perception.


Ten young male gymnasts were assessed for split range of motion. One side split was randomly assigned as the experimental condition, and the other side split was assigned as the control. Both side splits were performed on a vibration device; the experimental condition had the device turned on and the control condition was performed with the device turned off. In addition, the athletes were assessed for pressure-to-pain transition using an algometer on the biceps femoris (stretched muscle) and vastus lateralis (nonstretched muscle) bilaterally.


Pre-post difference scores between the vibrated split (most improved) and the nonvibrated split were statistically different (P = .001, 95% confidence interval of the difference 2.3 to 5.8 cm). Following the stretching protocol, the force values for the pressure-to-pain threshold comparing the vibrated and nonvibrated biceps femoris muscle were not statistically different. The nonstretched vastus lateralis muscle also showed no statistical difference in pressure-to-pain threshold between the vibration and nonvibration conditions.


This study showed that vibration improved split range of motion over stretching alone, but did not show a difference in pressure-to-pain perception in either the stretched or nonstretched muscles.

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Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back and Caleb G.M. Santos

-related SNPs of the panel, surprisingly African population was one of the most genetically distant of the players. For this reason, we speculated the possibility of a selective pressure on genes related to sports performance in the players, favoring more present haplotypes in Latin Americans and Europeans than

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Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill

Seventy-three college female and 84 high school female cheerleaders participated in the current study on eating disorders and pressures within cheerleading. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and CHEER, a measure developed by the authors to identify pressures within cheerleading. A one-way MANOVA indicated significant differences between high school and college cheerleaders on CHEER and SPAS. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relation between SPAS, body dissatisfaction scores, and eating behavior, suggesting that body image is an important predictor for eating disorders in cheerleaders. Moreover, although high school cheerleaders reported fewer pressures than their college counterparts, they exhibited greater body dissatisfaction and disordered eating patterns.