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Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman

opportunity for higher outputs both on-field and in the gym the following week. These recommendations and dynamics may be more relevant in well-trained groups. Developing athletes may not require deload cycles as often due to natural caution taken when programming for such populations and therefore their

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Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga and Jean-Philippe Chaput

Background:

Adolescents are recommended to achieve ≥ 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and ≤2 h/day of screen time (ST). This study examined the relationships between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and adherence to PA and ST recommendations in a large sample of Canadian adolescents.

Methods:

This cross-sectional school-based survey included a representative sample of 9388 students in grades 7 to 12 across Ontario, Canada.

Results:

After adjustment for several confounding variables, results showed that male adolescents who use SNSs for fewer hours (≤ 1 h/day) had greater odds of adherence to PA and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently, while those who use it for more hours (≥ 3 h/day) had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation. Female adolescents who use SNSs for more hours had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation (use of SNSs ≥ 2 h/day) and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently (use of SNSs ≥ 5 h/day).

Conclusions:

Heavy use of SNSs has a negative influence on the adherence to the ST recommendation in both males and females; however, infrequent use of SNSs was related to the adherence to the PA recommendation and concurrent adherence to both recommendations in males only.

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Megan S. Patterson, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer and Jill M. Beville

Background:

Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM).

Methods:

Undergraduate women (n = 421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.

Results:

Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (P ≤ .01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations.

Conclusions:

This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.

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Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Yoshio Nakamura and Isao Muraoka

Background:

Although engaging in the recommended amount of physical activity provides disease-prevention benefits, few studies have examined the proportion and correlates of meeting the Japanese physical activity recommendation. This study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of attaining the recommended value on the Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion 2006.

Methods:

Data were analyzed for 5177 Japanese adults who took an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 6 possible demographic correlates were obtained. Respondents were divided into 3 groups—recommended, insufficient, and inactive—according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used.

Results:

Overall, 26.6% of respondents were physically active according to the recommendation criterion. Gender, employment status, age, marital status, and educational level were statistically significant. In men, being employed and in women, being 30 to 39 years of age were negatively associated with the attainment of the recommendation. Being male, being a married woman, and having a college education or higher for women were positively correlated with the attainment of the recommendation.

Conclusions:

Different associations of demographic correlates with the physical activity recommendation for men and women were found, suggesting that gender-specific strategies for targeting the population or specific interventions might be more effective in promoting physical activity among Japanese adults.

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Melanie L. Sartore and George B. Cunningham

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of weight discrimination on perceived attributions, person–job fit, and hiring recommendations. Three experiments were undertaken to investigate these issues with people applying for positions in fitness organizations (i.e., aerobics instructor and personal trainer). In all three studies qualified people who were overweight, relative to their qualified and sometimes unqualified thin counterparts, were perceived to have less desirable attributes (e.g., lazy), were thought to be a poorer fit for the position, and were less likely to receive a hiring recommendation. These relationships were influenced by applicant expertise and applicant sex in some cases. Implications for the fitness industry are discussed.

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Melody Oliver, Scott Duncan, Celia Kuch, Julia McPhee and Grant Schofield

Background:

Aims were to investigate sex, ethnicity, and age differences in achieving daily step count and television (TV) watching recommendations in schoolchildren.

Methods:

Participants were 615 children (n = 325) and adolescents (n = 290) aged 5 to 16 years. Activity was assessed over 5 days using pedometers; TV time was collected via parental proxy-report and self-report. Ethnic, sex, and age differences in step counts, TV time, and odds of meeting TV and step count recommendations were examined for weekdays, weekend days, and overall using generalized estimation equation modeling.

Results:

Overall, boys were more active than girls (P < .001). Adolescents were more active than children (P = .044), watched more TV (P = .005), and were less likely to meet TV watching recommendations (P = .004). Non-European children watched significantly more TV (P = .008), and were significantly less likely to meet TV recommendations than non-European children (P = .001). Participants watched more TV and accumulated less steps on weekend days than weekdays.

Conclusions:

Multifaceted interventions focusing on both increasing activity and decreasing TV time are needed, especially on weekends. Children and girls may benefit more from activity interventions, while ethnic-specific interventions focusing on TV habits may be most efficacious for adolescents.

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Virginia Rall Chomitz, Denise Burke Aske, Julia McDonald, Howard Cabral and Karen Ann Hacker

Background:

There is growing recognition of the importance of recreational space utilization for promoting physical activity (PA) among youth.

Methods:

An cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 926 diverse 6th-8th grade students in Somerville, MA. Participants completed the 2007 Youth Risk Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Chi-square testing and logistical regression modeling were performed to predict meeting national PA recommendations for moderate, vigorous, and 60 minutes or more (60+) PA.

Results:

The participants reported meeting recommended PA levels for moderate (27%), vigorous (70%) and 60+ (21%) PA. In multivariate analysis, being male and speaking English were significantly associated with meeting all 3 PA recommendations. Recreational spaces significantly associated with meeting PA recommendations included neighborhood parks and walk/bike paths, playing fields and courts, and recreational centers. Recreational space utilization varied by gender, race/ethnicity, and language.

Conclusions:

Recreational space utilization was an important predictor of meeting PA recommendations among middle school students. Our results showed that PA attainment and recreational space utilization varied by demographic characteristics. The role of each recreational space in predicting PA varied depending on the outcome used. This study demonstrates the potential use of YRBS data to inform resource allocation for PA promotion in diverse communities.

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Marjolein Visser, Robert J. Brychta, Kong Y. Chen and Annemarie Koster

We aimed to compare self-reported adherence to the physical activity recommendation with accelerometry in older adults and to identify determinants of misperception. The sample included 138 adults age 65–75 yr old participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Participants completed a lifestyle questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for one week. More than half (56.8%) of the participants reported to adhere to the physical activity recommendation (in 5-min bouts), however, based on accelerometry, this percentage was only 24.6%. Of those who reported to adhere, 65.3% did not do so based on accelerometry. The misperceivers were older (p < .009), more often female (p = .007), had a poorer walking performance (p = .02), reported a lower social support (p = .04), and tended to have a lower self-efficacy (p = .09) compared with those who correctly perceived their adherence to the recommendation. These results suggest that misperception of adherence to the physical activity recommendation is highly prevalent among specific subgroups of older adults.

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Wendell C. Taylor, James F. Sallis, Emily Lees, Joseph T. Hepworth, Karina Feliz, Devin C. Volding, Andrea Cassels and Jonathan N. Tobin

Background:

Middle age and older (mean = 58.7 y), racial/ethnic minority women report low levels of physical activity. Recommendations to change the social and built environments to promote physical activity in this group are underdeveloped. Two research questions guided this study: What environmental changes are recommended by racial/ethnic minority women? What policies are related to the environmental changes?

Methods:

The findings from nine Nominal Group Technique sessions with 45 subjects were analyzed.

Results:

More police protection, cleaner streets, removal of drugs from streets, more street lights, walking groups, and free gyms were prioritized by subjects as the most important recommendations. The relevant policies included municipal, police department, sanitation department, public works, and transportation department.

Conclusions:

Racial/ethnic minority women living in low income, urban areas recommend improvements that affect overall quality of life. Meeting basic needs may be a prerequisite for use of physical activity resources.

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Cormac G. Ryan, Patricia Schofield and Denis J. Martin

Negative views of older adults can lead to suboptimal care. For older adults with persistent low back pain (LBP), promotion of physical activity by health care professionals is important. Health care professionals’ views of older adults are influenced by their training. This study aimed to compare recommendations for physical activity for managing persistent LBP offered by students in physiotherapy and occupational therapy to an older person vs. a younger person. In a cross-sectional online survey, participants (N = 77) randomly received a vignette of either a 40-yr-old or 70-yr-old patient with persistent LBP. Other than age, the vignettes were identical. There was no difference between the younger and older vignettes in the likelihood of participants making overall appropriate physical activity recommendations—63% vs. 59%, OR (95%CI) = 1.19 (0.48–2.99), p = .71—although there was a trend toward age bias on recommendations specific to daily activity. Postqualification education may be where ageist views need to be addressed.