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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

biochemical changes, emphasizing the necessity for an adequate recovery period after the training bout. For the purposes of this commentary, fatigue is defined as a state in which physical and/or mental performance is reduced as a result of these disturbances. 1 Similarly, recovery is defined as the set of

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

Adaptation to training is maximized when the appropriate balance between training and recovery is achieved, allowing supercompensation to occur. High training loads with insufficient recovery periods compromise training adaptation, which over time can manifest as nonfunctional overreaching and

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

Commercial “carbohydrate-replacement” beverages (sports drinks), which contain added carbohydrate to aid in muscle glycogen resynthesis, are commonly used as part of post-exercise recovery routines. Recently, studies have suggested that low-fat chocolate milk is an effective post-exercise recovery

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

the examiner notices an eye deviating outward (exophoria). The distance measured from the target to the patient’s nose when it appears double or exophoria is noticed and recorded as the NPC break. NPC recovery is the point measured from the tip of the nose to the target when the target appears single

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Ryan D. Henke, Savana M. Kettner, Stephanie M. Jensen, Augustus C.K. Greife and Christopher J. Durall

exacerbation low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAEX) may expedite concussion recovery via increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. 2 – 5 Subsymptom exacerbation LIAEX, starting a minimum of 4 weeks after an SRC, has been reported to be more beneficial than rest, 6 but the effects of LIAEX

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

negative health outcomes (eg, injuries). Notably, Appaneal and Perna 24 stated that these underpinnings are not limited to injury onset and recovery but could rather be examined in light of other health aspects, such as BP. Apart from examining psychophysiological stress, injury research has also been

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

competitions is, therefore, of great importance as most elite athletes train at least twice a day and, in several sports, they can even compete several times in the same day. Ensuring optimal recovery between sessions would enable an adequate adaptation to greater training volumes and, thus, eventually result

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton

made great inroads into developing a model capable of tracking not only the depletion of W ′, but also its replenishment or recovery. The additional framework to the original model states that, when working at an intensity below CP, an individual’s W ′ will replenish. Skiba et al have published 2

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Callum G. Brownstein, Derek Ball, Dominic Micklewright and Neil V. Gibson

Repeated sprints are an effective and time-efficient method of training team-sport athletes ( 29 ). Studies investigating the use of repeated sprints on performance, recovery, and metabolic response have attempted to optimize the training stimulus by varying work-to-rest ratios ( 20 ), numbers of