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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

is necessary to prevent a protracted recovery. 1 For the past several decades, physical rest has been prescribed as a mainstay for SRC management. 1 More recently, rest has been divided into cognitive and physical components. Cognitive rest may include restricting daily living activities, such as

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Ashley L. Santo, Melissa L. Race and Elizabeth F. Teel

the examiner notices an eye deviating outward (exophoria). The distance measured from the target to the patient’s nose when it appears double or exophoria is noticed and recorded as the NPC break. NPC recovery is the point measured from the tip of the nose to the target when the target appears single

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

biochemical changes, emphasizing the necessity for an adequate recovery period after the training bout. For the purposes of this commentary, fatigue is defined as a state in which physical and/or mental performance is reduced as a result of these disturbances. 1 Similarly, recovery is defined as the set of

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Ana C. Holt, Daniel J. Plews, Katherine T. Oberlin-Brown, Fabrice Merien and Andrew E. Kilding

Adaptation to training is maximized when the appropriate balance between training and recovery is achieved, allowing supercompensation to occur. High training loads with insufficient recovery periods compromise training adaptation, which over time can manifest as nonfunctional overreaching and

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

Commercial “carbohydrate-replacement” beverages (sports drinks), which contain added carbohydrate to aid in muscle glycogen resynthesis, are commonly used as part of post-exercise recovery routines. Recently, studies have suggested that low-fat chocolate milk is an effective post-exercise recovery

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Ryan D. Henke, Savana M. Kettner, Stephanie M. Jensen, Augustus C.K. Greife and Christopher J. Durall

exacerbation low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAEX) may expedite concussion recovery via increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. 2 – 5 Subsymptom exacerbation LIAEX, starting a minimum of 4 weeks after an SRC, has been reported to be more beneficial than rest, 6 but the effects of LIAEX

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

negative health outcomes (eg, injuries). Notably, Appaneal and Perna 24 stated that these underpinnings are not limited to injury onset and recovery but could rather be examined in light of other health aspects, such as BP. Apart from examining psychophysiological stress, injury research has also been

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

competitions is, therefore, of great importance as most elite athletes train at least twice a day and, in several sports, they can even compete several times in the same day. Ensuring optimal recovery between sessions would enable an adequate adaptation to greater training volumes and, thus, eventually result

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Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth

( Churchward-Venne et al., 2012 ; Hulmi et al., 2010 ; Koopman et al., 2007 ). Provision of a source of amino acids/protein provides not only the substrate for, but also stimulates muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance training ( Koopman, 2004 ; Moore et al., 2009 ; Rasmussen et