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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

Commercial “carbohydrate-replacement” beverages (sports drinks), which contain added carbohydrate to aid in muscle glycogen resynthesis, are commonly used as part of post-exercise recovery routines. Recently, studies have suggested that low-fat chocolate milk is an effective post-exercise recovery

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Landon Lempke, Abbis Jaffri and Nicholas Erdman

is necessary to prevent a protracted recovery. 1 For the past several decades, physical rest has been prescribed as a mainstay for SRC management. 1 More recently, rest has been divided into cognitive and physical components. Cognitive rest may include restricting daily living activities, such as

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Ryan D. Henke, Savana M. Kettner, Stephanie M. Jensen, Augustus C.K. Greife and Christopher J. Durall

exacerbation low-intensity aerobic exercise (LIAEX) may expedite concussion recovery via increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. 2 – 5 Subsymptom exacerbation LIAEX, starting a minimum of 4 weeks after an SRC, has been reported to be more beneficial than rest, 6 but the effects of LIAEX

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

negative health outcomes (eg, injuries). Notably, Appaneal and Perna 24 stated that these underpinnings are not limited to injury onset and recovery but could rather be examined in light of other health aspects, such as BP. Apart from examining psychophysiological stress, injury research has also been

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

competitions is, therefore, of great importance as most elite athletes train at least twice a day and, in several sports, they can even compete several times in the same day. Ensuring optimal recovery between sessions would enable an adequate adaptation to greater training volumes and, thus, eventually result

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton

made great inroads into developing a model capable of tracking not only the depletion of W ′, but also its replenishment or recovery. The additional framework to the original model states that, when working at an intensity below CP, an individual’s W ′ will replenish. Skiba et al have published 2

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William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn and Tom Clifford

function recovery in the days following strenuous exercise. 9 Nonetheless, the majority of the studies assessing the effects of immediate protein feeding on exercise recovery are performed in the morning, when there are several opportunities for additional protein feeding and, thus, further stimulation of

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Paula B. Debien, Marcelly Mancini, Danilo R. Coimbra, Daniel G.S. de Freitas, Renato Miranda and Maurício G. Bara Filho

the athletes’ high level of performance throughout many months of competition. 7 – 9 The success of training, in turn, depends on the balance between the magnitude and distribution of the training load and the recovery applied during the season. 10 – 12 In order to avoid negative adaptations to

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

potential to adversely affect neuromuscular function and prolong athletic recovery. It is well known that high-intensity and/or unaccustomed eccentric exercise causes EIMD through exposure to an inappropriate level of mechanical stress. 6 EIMD results in soreness, myofibrillar disruption, and release of