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Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore and Justin Kemp

first training bout and may be further augmented by hot environments. 5 Red cell volume (RCV) is less influenced by training alone, but may be augmented by living/training at altitude for more than 2 weeks. 6 Although these environmental interventions (ie, altitude/hypoxic or hot environments) offer

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Ryan W. Guenter, John G.H. Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

. Although these terms were, at times, somewhat vague and overlapping, we used the scouts’ words to explain the core meaning and behaviors associated with each term. We also discovered that scouts had certain “red flags” that led them to question players’ personal qualities. Compete Fifteen scouts used the

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Christina Yannetsos, Mario C. Pacheco and Danny G. Thomas

Key Points ▸ There is a widespread underreporting of concussion in athletes. ▸ Red-flag symptoms were often mistaken for common concussive symptoms by judo coaches. ▸ Coaches’ concussion education, judo equipment, and legislature are potential areas of improvement. Sport-related concussion has an

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

persistent pain. Methods Design In this parallel group, single-blind randomized control trial, participants were randomly assigned to receive either PNE or control education (red flags education). Three outcome measures were analyzed before and after both of the education sessions. Outcome measures were the

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Helio S. Medeiros Jr, Rafael S. Mello, Mayara Z. Amorim, Alexander J. Koch and Marco Machado


The authors tested different loading schemes for the number of repetitions completed during multiple sets of resistance exercise.


Twenty-four resistance-trained men (age 24.0 ± 4.5 y, body mass 78.3 ± 10.2 kg, height 177 ± 7 cm) were tested over a 5-wk period. During week 1 a 10-repetition maximum (10RM) in the leg press was determined. During weeks 2–5 subjects completed 4 bouts of leg presses, in a randomized fashion, consisting of 4 sets with 60 s of interset rest. Set 1 of each bout was performed with 10RM, with differing intensity for sets 2–4 as follows: (1) 10RM load for all sets (CON), (2) 5% load reduction after each set (RED 5), (3) 10% load reduction after each set (RED 10), and (4) 15% load reduction after each set (RED 15).


Significant (P < .05) decreases in repetitions completed across sets were observed in CON (sets 2, 3, and 4) and RED 5 (sets 3 and 4). Significant increases in repetitions completed across sets (2, 3, and 4) were observed in RED 10 and RED 15 (P < .05). RED 5 (8.3 ± 0.9 repetitions) and RED 10 (12.0 ± 1.1 repetitions) allowed subjects to maintain the majority (>60%) of sets in the range of 8–12 repetitions, whereas both CON and RED 15 resulted in <50% of sets in the range of 8–12 repetitions, with the majority of sets performed <8 repetitions for CON and >12 repetitions for RED 15.


Reducing load 5–10% in each set should allow maintenance of 8–12RM loads for most sets of resistance exercise.

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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

(latent) Epstein-Barr infection. Table 1 Clinical Laboratory Results and Dietary Analysis on Diagnosis of Unexplained Underperformance Syndrome (UUPS) and at 4 and 14 Months Postintervention Units Range UUPS 14 mo Red blood cells 10 12 /L 3.80–5.00 4.49 4.62 Hemoglobin g/L 115–145 145 145 Hematocrit L/L 0

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

batteries for children for population level surveillance ( 21 , 33 ) and as the basis for classifying youth fitness, with levels of 42 and 35 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 for boys and girls, respectively, identified as “Clinical Red Flags”—potentially warranting intervention ( 21 , 33 ). While this explosion stems

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Anna Melin, Monica Klungland Torstveit, Louise Burke, Saul Marks and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes’ health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

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Alan D. Rogol

Most hormonal agents used for nonmedical purposes in athletes have legitimate medical uses. This review introduces each compound by its pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and legitimate medical use and reviews information on its abuse. Human growth hormone is presently available in virtually unlimited quantities due to its production by recombinant DNA technology. Its use in athletes is considered for its muscle-building, fat-depleting properties. Erythropoietin is a kidney hormone that increases red cell mass. It is used for renal dialysis patients to avoid blood transfusions. Its use in athletes is to raise red blood cell mass in an attempt to augment maximal oxygen capacity and the ability to do endurance work. Human chorionic gonadotropin has the biological activity of luteinizing hormone to increase testosterone synthesis and to maintain (partially) testicular volume when exogenous androgens are taken. Clenbuterol is a beta2 adrenergic agonist with muscle-building properties that are seemingly specific to striated muscle; clenbuterol may cause reduction in body fat.

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Margo L. Mountjoy, Louise M. Burke, Trent Stellingwerff and Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen

from the scientific and sports communities; and rightly so, given the impact on athlete health. But what about the issue of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)? Does RED-S also need a dramatic event or a Hollywood ambassador to draw attention to the hidden danger it poses to an athlete’s health