-determinant level, which provides a more nuanced examination of the data. Go-Zone Displays Go-zone displays are bivariate x - and y -graphs that juxtapose the mean importance ratings of the 81 fun-determinants, as reported by two comparison groups. Along the x -axis (e.g., girls) and y -axis (e.g., boys), lines
Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell and Loretta DiPietro
.1 million SRCs in youth football globally. Mainstream and social media report on SRC with increasing frequency and depth ( Ahmed & Hall, 2017 ; Sullivan et al., 2012 ), with concerns particularly focused on longer-term effects on cognitive functioning. For example, former National Football League (NFL
Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer
( Department of Health, 2011 ). In 2016, 59% of women claimed to meet the PA guidelines ( Sport England, 2017 ). However, it is recognized that this statistic is likely to be much lower if objective, non-self-reported measures are considered. Furthermore, research indicates that women are less physically
Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman
A number of media reports have surfaced over the last couple of years citing many concerns about sport-related concussion (SRC) and its short- and long-term consequences. In particular, American football has received a significant amount of media coverage in this area. Published empirical studies
Studies that cite the positive outcomes of girls participating in sports are well documented ( Janssen & Leblac, 2010 ; Women’s Sports Foundation, 2016 ) and include girls reporting higher levels of confidence and self-esteem and lower levels of depression. Girls who play sports are less likely to
Barbara Thomas Coventry
This study explores sex and racial segregation within television sports broadcasting. It uses logit log-linear analysis to examine the relationship between job classifications within sports broadcasting and such explanatory variables as sex and race. The results show that women are concentrated in competition-level reporting and reporting but are underrepresented as studio analysts and play-by-play announcers. People of color are most likely to be found doing competition-level reporting, followed by studio analysis. They are least likely to work as play-by-play announcers. In addition, people of color are virtually limited to broadcasting baseball, basketball, and football. Although Whites also cover these three sports, they occupy practically all of the jobs covering other sports. The findings regarding sex and race support the social closure perspective that argues that women and people of color would be concentrated in lower positions within an occupation.
Kathleen E. Miller, Merrill J. Melnick, Grace M. Barnes, Michael P. Farrell and Don Sabo
Although previous research has established that high school sports participation might be associated with positive academic outcomes, the parameters of the relationship remain unclear. Using a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 western New York adolescents, this study examined gender- and race-specific differences on the impact of two dimensions of adolescent athletic involvement (“jock” identity and athlete status) on changes in school grades and school misconduct over a 2-year interval. Female and Black adolescents who identified themselves as jocks reported lower grades than did those who did not, whereas female athletes reported higher grades than female nonathletes. Jocks also reported significantly more misconduct (including skipping school, cutting classes, having someone from home called to the school for disciplinary purposes, and being sent to the principal’s office) than did nonjocks. Gender moderated the relationship between athlete status and school misconduct; athletic participation had a less salutary effect on misconduct for girls than for boys.
Bryan E. Denham
This study addresses the manner in which a dramatic news event can impact mainstream press coverage of a social issue. In late June 1991, football player Lyle Alzado, in haggard condition, appeared on First Person with Maria Shriver and on the cover of Sports Illustrated and attributed his rare form of brain lymphoma to years of anabolic steroid abuse. Though scientific evidence of a relationship did not exist, a series of mainstream press reports did not hesitate in assuming a connection. The study provides an empirical analysis of (a) how a dramatic report in specialized print and broadcast media can build the agenda for mainstream journalism, and (b) how the report can help trigger a change in the way journalists address and frame issues. Methodologically, the study uses log-linear modeling to examine the relationships between a series of categorical variables, thus providing scholars with a framework for future content analyses on the subject.
James P. McHale, Penelope G. Vinden, Loren Bush, Derek Richer, David Shaw and Brienne Smith
This article examines patterns of adjustment among urban middle-school children as a function of involvement in organized team sports. Four hundred twenty-three seventh-grade students (216 boys and 207 girls) reported on their involvement in sport, self-esteem, delinquent activity, and drug use during the year preceding the survey. Physical Education teachers rated social competence, shyness/withdrawal, and disinhibition/aggression. Compared with noninvolved children, sport-involved youth reported higher self-esteem and were rated by teachers as more socially competent and less shy and withdrawn. Sport-involved youth, including those in contact sports, were not rated as more aggressive than noninvolved children. And though sport-involved youth reported a slightly broader range of delinquent activities than noninvolved youth, sport-involved boys were actually less likely than noninvolved boys to have experimented with marijuana.
Marie Dacey, Amy Baltzell and Len Zaichkowsky
Strategies for exercise maintenance of vigorous (n=54) and moderate (n=38) regular women exercisers were compared using the Processes of Change (Marcus, Rossi et al., 1992) and Self-Efficacy scales (Marcus, Selby et al., 1992). Both groups reported highest utilization of Counterconditioning, Self-liberation, Self-reevaluation, and Reinforcement Management, as well as a high degree of exercise self-efficacy. Vigorous exercisers indicated greater utilization of Counterconditioning (p=.004) and a higher degree of self-efficacy (p=.009), whereas moderate exercisers reported higher utilization of Environmental Reevaluation (p=.028). In follow-up interviews with vigorous exercisers (n=4) and moderate exercisers (n=4), all participants reported psychological benefits of physical activity, high exercise self-efficacy, and exercising to meet personal needs. Reported differences between the two groups include physical experiences while exercising, the development of exercise behavior patterns, and social influences. Based upon this study we suggest that similarities outweigh differences in the maintenance of vigorous and moderate exercise, but certain mode-specific interventions may be warranted to enhance adherence.