.73) Afternoon 10.51 (6.42) 13.62 (4.02) 18.24 (7.34) *Significantly greater than at 8:00 PM. **Significantly greater than at 10:00 PM. Exercise sessions comprised a 5-minute warm-up followed by 30 minutes of running on a level treadmill at 75% of the subjects’ VO 2 max. After the completion of all exercise
Lara A. Carlson, Kaylee M. Pobocik, Michael A. Lawrence, Daniel A. Brazeau and Alexander J. Koch
Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Li Guan and Kathy J. Simpson
the pelvis, not the upper trunk. 2 , 4 However, the upper trunk–pelvis coordination patterns used in running are not well understood. Hinrichs 14 found that the upper trunk “actively” rotated with the arms in opposition to the lower trunk, pelvis, and legs to cancel out the axial angular momentum of
Herman van Werkhoven and Stephen J. Piazza
The human foot and ankle stand out for their disproportionately large kinetic contributions during many commonly performed activities. The muscles of the ankle joint, for example, generate more power during running than do those of either the hip or the knee. 1 , 2 Studies of anatomy
Paula R. Mesquita, Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Eliane F. Manfio and Ana C. de David
provided data for children foot loading patterns during walking, 1 , 5 , 6 evaluation of running is still lacking. Vieira et al 7 examined plantar loads during running in early childhood (aged 4–6 y) and demonstrated that foot loads increase with age and concluded that it seems to be still developing at
Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa
; CareFusion, San Diego, CA) was estimated by a continuous incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion on a motorized treadmill (Forma Run 500; Technogym, Seattle, WA) ( Costa et al., 2009 ). To determine running speed for the experimental trials, the treadmill speed was extrapolated from the V ˙ O 2
Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris
Over the past decade, running as a sport has become a test of human endurance. 1 An increasing number of runners are looking beyond competing in standard marathons, and are taking on ultra-endurance events, multistage, and adventure races. 2 These races not only provide a test of
Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert and Timothy D. Noakes
To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.
In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.
The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.
The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.
David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride
-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was to determine if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato complex with lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) during a 4-week period would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress during recovery from a 2-hr running bout that
Bastiaan Breine, Philippe Malcolm, Veerle Segers, Joeri Gerlo, Rud Derie, Todd Pataky, Edward C. Frederick and Dirk De Clercq
The classification of foot contact patterns, ie, rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot contact patterns, has proven relevant due to a possible relation with running economy or performance. 1 , 2 However, this classification is particularly relevant because of its relationship with the intensity of
Ben Langley, Mary Cramp and Stewart C. Morrison
Traditional running-injury paradigms have been challenged within the literature, 1 yet still underpin running shoe design. As such, running shoes are still designed with stability and cushioning features that are thought to influence the rate and/or magnitude of foot motion and impact loading. 2