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Daniel A. Rascher, Mark S. Nagel, Matthew T. Brown and Chad D. McEvoy

A fundamental belief in professional sport leagues is that competitive balance is needed to maximize demand and revenues; therefore, leagues have created policies attempting to attain proper competitive balance. Further, research posits that objectives of professional sport teams’ owners include some combination of winning and profit maximization. Although the pursuit of wins is a zero sum game, revenue generation and potential profit making is not. This article focuses upon the National Football League’s potential unintended consequences of creating the incentive for some teams to free ride on the rest of the league’s talent and brand. It examines whether an owner’s objectives to generate increased revenues and profits are potentially enhanced by operating as a continual low-cost provider while making money from the shared revenues and brand value of the league. The present evidence indicates that, overall, being a low-cost provider is more profitable than increasing player salaries in an attempt to win additional games.

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Erik K.M. Kjeldsen

This study utilized alumni of one sport management graduate program in an effort to investigate career paths in sport management. A representative sample of 126 alumni was selected from a population of 251 students who had graduated over a 10-year period. A total of 69 usable returns were received, for a response rate of 54.8%. Specific points during the professional, preparation period and during the working career were examined as benchmarks in the career path. The number of alumni maintaining jobs in the field at each benchmark shed light on career retention and on the factors contributing to attrition. The five benchmarks selected were entry into the graduate program, exit from the program, the internship, first job, and final job. Salary at each job level and satisfaction were measured in an effort to better understand the nature of a sport management career. The analysis was differentiated by sex and by the various subfields in the sport management profession.

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Meg G. Hancock and T. Christopher Greenwell

Higher education administrators have called on faculty to strategize ways in which to fill classroom seats, as well as recruit and retain diverse students. Understanding current student populations should be of increasing importance to sport management faculty as new programs are established at colleges and universities each year. A sample of 330 sport management students from introductory sport management courses at six different schools was surveyed to identify factors influencing their selection of a sport management major. Results indicate students select the sport management major because they have an interest in sport and working in the sport industry. Program quality and program convenience were also important selection factors. Women had lower salary perceptions and minority students had lower perceptions across most selection factors. Understanding these factors can help programs tailor their marketing and recruiting efforts in an effort to develop a more diverse classroom and workforce.

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Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

Internships are essential parts of quality sport management education, enabling students to link the classroom - professional environments through observation, exploration, and participation. Given the significance of the internship experience, it is important to determine if all students have the same opportunities for learning. The purpose of this study was to describe working (i.e., learning conditions) for female and male sport management interns working in college sport. Participants were collegiate athletics administrators (N = 257) who provided information on seven aspects of students’ (N = 379) internship experiences. A Chi Square model found differences (p = <.05) favoring males in intern selection, employment status, and salary, as well as job assignments in sports information, corporate sales, and compliance. In addition, female interns performed more clerical duties than males. Supervisor gender was a significant factor in some cases. It was concluded that biases favoring males exist in many facets of collegiate internships.

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Ian J. Connole, Jack C. Watson II, Vanessa R. Shannon, Craig Wrisberg, Edward Etzel and Christine Schimmel

This study used a consumer marketing approach to investigate the market for sport psychology positions in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) institutions. Athletic administrators’ (AA) preferences for various sport psychology positions were compared based on time commitment, affiliation, payment, services, and clients. Results indicated that AAs were most attracted to positions that included (a) part-time commitment, (b) athletic department employment, (c) payment via annual salary, (d) both performance and mental health related services, and (d) work with athletes, teams, and athletics staff members. Over two thirds of the 478 AAs sampled were interested in hiring a sport psychology professional to fill that position. It was concluded that the field of sport psychology collaborate across disciplines and emphasize multiple options for meeting the perceived needs of NCAA athletic departments.

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Margie A. Weaver and Packianathan Chelladurai

Associate/Assistant athletic administrators from Division I (139 males, 123 females) and Division III (130 males, 123 females) universities of the NCAA responded to a questionnaire consisting of (a) items eliciting background information, (b) perceived and preferred mentoring functions measured by the Mentor Role Instrument (Ragins & McFarlin, 1990), (c) perceived barriers to mentoring measured by Perceived Barriers Scale (Ragins & Cotton, 1991), and a scale of satisfaction developed for the study. Factor analysis yielded three facets of satisfaction: Work Group, Extrinsic Rewards, and Intrinsic Rewards. The results of MÁNOVA showed that an equal proportion of males and females had experienced mentoring relationships, and mentored individuals were more satisfied with work than their non-mentored counterparts. Respondents from Division I received significantly higher salaries, and they were more satisfied with their extrinsic rewards than the respondents from Division III. Finally, correlational analyses showed positive but weak relationships between mentoring functions and the satisfaction facets.

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Daniel S. Mason and Trevor Slack

This paper examines the professional hockey industry to explore the principles of agency theory. Using basic tenets derived from the agency literature and conditions specific to the hockey industry, a series of propositions are developed. These are investigated using data from industry documents, popular articles on hockey, and interviews with players, agents, team managers and other relevant industry stakeholders. The results suggested that concerns for agent reputation, agent competition, agent certification and salary disclosure have cumulatively reduced information asymmetry favoring the agent and have decreased the likelihood of agent opportunism. This has resulted in a decrease in the use of commissions by agents, but this form of performance contingent compensation remains the most widely used form of remuneration.

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Marlene A. Dixon and Stacy Warner

Despite the overwhelming emphasis on job satisfaction in sport management research, scholars continue to advocate for the distinctiveness and importance of evaluating both job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a model of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for intercollegiate coaches. Fifteen head coaches participated in semistructured interviews. Results revealed a sport industry specific three-factor model. Desirable job factors (Player-Coach Relationships, Recognition, and Social Status) were related only to satisfaction. Industry Standard Factors (Sport Policy, Salary, Recruiting, Supervision, and Life Balance) were related only to dissatisfaction. Performance Dependent Factors (Flexibility and Control, Program Building, and Relationships with Colleagues) were related to satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The results support the distinctiveness of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as constructs, and also demonstrate a continued need for examining job attitudes within context. As sport managers understand the particular expectations of their employees and their industry they can better diagnose and solve employee issues.

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James M. Gladden, Richard L. Irwin and William A. Sutton

Following a decade that produced astonishing player salaries, continued player mobility, widespread corporate involvement, and skyrocketing ticket prices and broadcast rights fees, North American major league professional sport teams enter the 21st century encountering a number of significant challenges. An analysis of the aforementioned trends yields valuable insight into the future of professional team sport management in North America and leads to the identification of a primary concern of team owners and operators, that of managing the franchise's brand equity. With team owners increasingly reaping profits from the long-term appreciation of the team's value while continuing to lose money on a yearly basis, there will be an increased focus on strengthening team brands. This new focus will lead management to build and maintain brand equity through two primary means: the acquisition of assets and the enhancement of customer relationships. Each of these predictions is explained in depth in this paper and examples are provided.

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Jerome Quarterman

The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (a) to identify age, gender, educational background, athletic playing experience, teaching experience, coaching experience, and administrative experience of athletic directors (ADs) of historically black colleges and universities {HBCUs), and (b) to compare these data with data collected in previous studies on ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. A 20-item questionnaire was designed, and copies were mailed to the 80 ADs of the HBCUs listed in the 1988-1989 National Directory of College Athletics. Fifty-five (68.8%) ADs returned the questionnaire; of these, 53 were black males, 1 was a black female, and 1 was a white male. Although the results revealed that ADs of HBCUs possessed many of the characteristics of ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities, there were differences found between the ADs of this study and those of earlier studies: (a) ADs of HBCUs were, on the average, 5 years younger in age, (b) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs held master's and doctorate degrees, (c) a higher percentage of ADs of HBCUs currently had teaching and/or coaching responsibilities, and (d) the median salary ranges were lower for ADs of HBCUs than for ADs of predominantly white colleges and universities. As was the case in earlier studies, few ADs held degrees in sport administration,