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Erica Thomas and Dominic Upton

Background:

Physical activity determinant studies now often include both environmental and sociocognitive factors but few of them acknowledge and explore the mechanisms underlying relevant environmental influences. This study explored environmental correlates of children’s self-reported physical activity and potential mediation through the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and habit strength.

Methods:

Six hundred and twenty-one pupils aged 9–11 years were recruited from 4 primary schools in the UK. TPB variables, habit strength and environmental variables were assessed at baseline. Self-reported physical activity was assessed 1 week later.

Results:

Mediation tests revealed that 43% of the association between convenient facilities and intention was mediated through subjective norms (17%) and habit (26%), while 15% of the association between convenient facilities and physical activity was mediated through habit strength alone. A significant direct effect of convenient facilities and resources in the home environment on physical activity was also found. The school environment was not significantly related to children’s physical activity intentions or behavior.

Conclusion:

The results suggest that the environment influences children’s physical activity both directly and indirectly and that habit strength seems to be the most important mediator for this association.

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Andreia Nogueira Pizarro, Jasper Schipperijn, José Carlos Ribeiro, António Figueiredo, Jorge Mota and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

Identifying where children spend their activity-time may help define relevant domains for effective PA promotion and better understand the relation between PA and environment. Our study aimed to identify how boys and girls allocate their active time in the different domains.

Methods:

374 children (201 girls; mean age = 11.7 years) wore an accelerometer and a GPS for 7 days. PALMS software combined data, categorized nonsedentary time and bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Geographical information system allocated activity into 4 domains: school, leisure, transport and home.

Results:

Overall, a higher proportion of time in MVPA was found in the transport domain (45.5%), school (30.5%), leisure (21.3%), and home (2.7%). Gender differences were found for the proportion of time spent across domains. Girls (54.5%) had more MVPA than boys (35.2%) in the transport domain, whereas boys spent more MVPA time in school (37.0%) and leisure (24.9%) than girls (24.7% and 18.1, respectively).

Conclusions:

Interventions to increase transport behavior may be relevant for children’s MVPA. School is an important domain for boys PA, while for girls increasing the supportiveness of the school environment for PA should be a priority. Strategies should consider gender differences when targeting each domain.

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Anthony Barnett, Lawrence Y.S. Chan and Lain C. Bruce

The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of the 20-meter multistage shuttle run (MSR) for predicting peak VO2 in Hong Kong Chinese students, ages 12–17 years. Fifty-five subjects, 27 boys and 28 girls, performed the MSR in the school environment and had peak VO2 determined in the laboratory. A correlation of 0.72 (p<0.001) was found between peak VO2 and predicted peak VO2 using an equation previously developed with Canadian children (6). However, maximal shuttle run speed alone was a better predictor in this group (r=0.74, SEE=4.6 ml · kg−1·min−1, p<.001). Multiple-regression analysis (best-subsets) was performed and the best predictor variables were maximal speed and sex with either triceps skinfold or weight. For practical application in the school setting, the equation peak VO2 = 24.2 − 5.0(sex) − 0.8(age) + 3.4(maximal speed) (r=0.82, SEE=4.0), where for sex, male = 0 and female = 1, is suggested.

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

reinforcement for effort, and minimize reactions to failure and negative peer interactions. 20 Most school environments are highly structured to suppress PA through policies and rules that not only limit (and at times punish) PA but also reinforce sedentary behaviors. For example, students may be scolded for

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades

were predominantly European American ( Woods et al., 1997 ), middle-aged ( Goc Karp et al., 1996 ; Metzler & Freedman, 1985 ), and had taught physical education in school environments prior to transitioning into higher education ( Woods et al., 1997 ). Metzler and Freedman’s ( 1985 ) seminal

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Debra J. Rose

Theory” examined specific physical activity contexts (i.e., physical education and other leisure-time activity programs) within the broader school environment and how the implementation of physical activity policies, whether formulated at a regional, state, or federal level, can determine how well

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

). Physical education is deemed the most important component of a CSPAP; however, little is known regarding how physical educators conduct their lessons within a school environment that has been recognized for health and wellness. Recent guidelines from the Institutes of Medicine recommend that at least 50

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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

observed that school environment contributes to the overall physical activity and organized sports indicators hence a similar grade was allocated to the indicator. Community and Environment INC No sufficient data on this indicator to inform grading for the target population. Government B There is a

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

school building, and different school environments may hold different expectations. This helps to explain why disciplines such as PE are marginalized in some schools, but not in others ( Pennington, Prusak, & Wilkinson, 2014 ). There is evidence that supportive school environments allow for better

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Jenna R. Starck, K. Andrew R. Richards, Michael A. Lawson and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

relates to experiences that attract recruits into physical education ( Lawson, 1983 ). Prior to entering physical education teacher education (PETE), recruits develop subjective theories ( Grotjahn, 1991 ) based on their apprenticeship of observation ( Lortie, 1975 ) as children in school environments