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Monika Uys, Catherine Elizabeth Draper, Sharief Hendricks, Anniza de Villiers, Jean Fourie, Nelia Steyn and Estelle Victoria Lambert

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence physical activity (PA) levels during break-times in South African primary school children.

Methods:

The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities in Youth (SOPLAY) was used to observe PA levels during break-times at low-income schools (4 intervention, 4 control). The intervention was based on action-planning including: school environment, curriculum, and family involvement. Categories of observed activity included Sedentary, Eating, Walking, or Vigorous PA. Contextual factors assessed included teacher supervision, equipment, and crowding. Chi-square tests were used to determine associations between PA levels and contextual factors.

Results:

In the 970 observations made, 31% of learners were sedentary, 14% were eating, 29% were walking, and 26% were engaged in vigorous PA. There were no differences in break-time PA between intervention and control groups (NS). With supervision, children were more likely to eat and less likely to do vigorous PA (P = .035). Playground crowding was associated with lower levels of vigorous activity and more sedentary behavior (P = .000).

Conclusions:

PA during break-time was adversely affected by over-crowding and lower with supervision. The results suggest that interventions may be targeted at the school policy environment to reduce these barriers to PA.

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Christina M. Thornton, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Jacqueline Kerr, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis

Background:

The after-school period provides an opportune context for adolescent physical activity. This study examined how characteristics of after-school recreation environments related to adolescent physical activity.

Methods:

Participants were 889 adolescents aged 12 to 17 (mean = 14.1, SD = 1.4) from 2 US regions. Adolescents reported on whether their school offered after-school supervised physical activity, access to play areas/fields, and presence of sports facilities. Outcomes were accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity, reported physical activity on school grounds during nonschool hours, attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity excluding school physical education, and BMI-for-age z-score. Mixed regression models adjusted for study design, region, sex, age, ethnicity, vehicles/licensed drivers in household, and distance to school.

Results:

School environment variables were all significantly associated with self-reported physical activity on school grounds during non-school hours (P < .001) and attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity (P < .05). Adolescents’ accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity was most strongly associated with access to supervised physical activity (P = .008).

Conclusions:

Policies and programs that provide supervised after-school physical activity and access to play areas, fields, and sports facilities may help adolescents achieve daily physical activity recommendations.

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Joannie Halas

This paper presents a case study of a physical education program for troubled youth attending an adolescent treatment center. The site selected for study was deliberately chosen due to the alternative nature of the physical education program and its apparent success in helping to connect students to their school environment. The researcher, as bricoleur, used a variety of methodological tools and strategies to collect data that corresponded to the study’s entry question: How does the physical education program work? Constructed from the data is the story of a gymnasium culture that has been carefully crafted to promote physically and psychologically safe participation that is fair and flexible, where students are encouraged to play just for fun, and a lack of competence is positioned as an opportunity to learn. By incorporating the theoretical framework of the “Circle of Courage” (Brendtro, Brokenleg, & Van Bockern, 1998) into the data analysis, this paper is intended to show how physical education can provide a reclaiming versus alienating learning environment for young people.

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Anthony Barnett, Lawrence Y.S. Chan and Lain C. Bruce

The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity of the 20-meter multistage shuttle run (MSR) for predicting peak VO2 in Hong Kong Chinese students, ages 12–17 years. Fifty-five subjects, 27 boys and 28 girls, performed the MSR in the school environment and had peak VO2 determined in the laboratory. A correlation of 0.72 (p<0.001) was found between peak VO2 and predicted peak VO2 using an equation previously developed with Canadian children (6). However, maximal shuttle run speed alone was a better predictor in this group (r=0.74, SEE=4.6 ml · kg−1·min−1, p<.001). Multiple-regression analysis (best-subsets) was performed and the best predictor variables were maximal speed and sex with either triceps skinfold or weight. For practical application in the school setting, the equation peak VO2 = 24.2 − 5.0(sex) − 0.8(age) + 3.4(maximal speed) (r=0.82, SEE=4.0), where for sex, male = 0 and female = 1, is suggested.

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Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Melbourne F. Hovell

reinforcement for effort, and minimize reactions to failure and negative peer interactions. 20 Most school environments are highly structured to suppress PA through policies and rules that not only limit (and at times punish) PA but also reinforce sedentary behaviors. For example, students may be scolded for

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Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades

were predominantly European American ( Woods et al., 1997 ), middle-aged ( Goc Karp et al., 1996 ; Metzler & Freedman, 1985 ), and had taught physical education in school environments prior to transitioning into higher education ( Woods et al., 1997 ). Metzler and Freedman’s ( 1985 ) seminal

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan

). Physical education is deemed the most important component of a CSPAP; however, little is known regarding how physical educators conduct their lessons within a school environment that has been recognized for health and wellness. Recent guidelines from the Institutes of Medicine recommend that at least 50

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Debra J. Rose

Theory” examined specific physical activity contexts (i.e., physical education and other leisure-time activity programs) within the broader school environment and how the implementation of physical activity policies, whether formulated at a regional, state, or federal level, can determine how well

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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

observed that school environment contributes to the overall physical activity and organized sports indicators hence a similar grade was allocated to the indicator. Community and Environment INC No sufficient data on this indicator to inform grading for the target population. Government B There is a

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Wesley J. Wilson, Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

school building, and different school environments may hold different expectations. This helps to explain why disciplines such as PE are marginalized in some schools, but not in others ( Pennington, Prusak, & Wilkinson, 2014 ). There is evidence that supportive school environments allow for better