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Herbert W. Marsh, F. Hulya Asci and Ines Marco Tomas

The present investigation demonstrated cross-cultural support for convergent and discriminant validity of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) in a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations with responses to the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP). The sample, 1,041 Turkish university students in elective physical education courses from 10 Turkish universities, provided a test of the cross-cultural generalizability of responses to these two widely used English language instruments. In support of construct validity interpretations, matching PSDQ and PSPP factors were highly correlated. However, support for the PSPP was undermined by extremely high correlations among several of its factors, due in part to a substantial method effect associated with its idiosyncratic response scale. Results based on this study with Turkish university students largely replicate and extend the findings of Marsh et al. (1994) with Australian high school students. Based on psychometric, theoretical, cross-cultural, and practical considerations, the results support the use of the PSDQ in a wide variety of research and applied settings.

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Fabien D. Legrand

We examined the possible mediating role of physical self-perceptions, physical self-esteem, and global self-esteem in the relationships between exercise and depression in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged women with elevated symptoms of depression. Forty-four female residents of a low-income housing complex were randomized into a 7-week-long exercise-training group or a wait-list group. Depression, physical self-perceptions and self-esteem were measured repeatedly. Significant changes were found for depression, self-esteem, physical self-worth, and self-perceived physical condition in the exercise-training group. Intent-to-treat analyses did not alter the results. Most of the reduction in depression occurred between Week 2 and Week 4 while initial improvement in physical self-worth and self-perceived physical condition was observed between baseline and Week 2. These variables can be seen as plausible mechanisms for effects of exercise on depression.

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Magnus Lindwall, Hulya Asci and Peter Crocker

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of within-person change, and associations of change, in global self-esteem (GSE), physical self-perceptions (PSP), and physical activity in a sample of 705 Canadian adolescent girls over three measurements points and 24 months. The Physical Self-Perceptions Profile (PSPP) was used to measure GSE and PSP, and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) was used to assess physical activity. Latent growth curve models were used to analyze the data. All PSP variables except for body attractiveness demonstrated significant average decline, but also significant was the change in between-person heterogeneity. Change in GSE and PSP was moderately to strongly related on a between-person level and weakly to moderately associated on a within-person level. Change in physical activity was related to change in the majority of the PSP variables but not to change in GSE.

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Herbert W. Marsh

Physical activity measures for a large, nationally representative sample of Australian boys and girls aged 9, 12, and 15 were related to multiple dimensions of physical fitness. Physical activity during a one-week period was only modestly related to physical fitness. However, relations tended to be higher for length of time multiplied by METs (METs - minday1) than for time alone, time multiplied by perceived effort, or METs - min day−1 multiplied by effort, whereas time multiplied by effort did no better than time alone. Relations tended to be nonlinear in that progressively higher levels of activity had less positive associations with physical fitness. The pattern and size of the relations were consistent across scores for boys and girls aged 9 to 15. Self-report measures of typical and recent (within one week) physical activity both contributed to the prediction of physical fitness, indicating that both aspects of physical activity are important.

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Cheryl B. Anderson and Karen J. Coleman


This article describes the adaptation of the Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ) for Adolescents for use with children and evaluates its construct validity. Based on a theoretical model supported in adults and adolescents, the AIQ-Child measures the general attribute of athletic, which encompasses exercise, sport, and physical activity and assesses 4 dimensions: appearance, competence, importance of activity, and encouragement from 3 sources (parents, friends, teachers/other adults).


The hypothesized 4-factor model was tested using structural equation modeling in 2 samples of 9- and 10-year-old children that were ethnically diverse (N = 432) and Hispanic (N = 504).


Confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL 8.71 supported the 4-factor structure in a 40- or 38-item version in sample 1 (RMSEA = .039, .041) and sample 2 (RMSEA = .038, .038). As in the adult and adolescent models, there was also support for a higher-order model. The AIQ-Child factors were positively related to physical activity (r = .51 to .68) and fitness (r = .15 to .41) and negatively related to TV/computer use (r = –.28 to –.03) and adiposity (r = –.32 to .04).


Findings support the factorial and construct validity of the AIQ-Child and its use as a self-report instrument in younger children.

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Diane E. Whaley and Vicki Ebbeck

One's sense of self over time, or identity, is an important component of well-being. Schemata formed from components of identity, such as an exerciser schema, have been associated with behaviors that promote physical activity. This study explored the process of exercise-identity formation in active older adults, questioned whether or not the term exerciser was a meaningful descriptor for their behavior, and examined whether self-views were mediated by perceptions of aging. Thirteen older adults (66–90 years) were interviewed. Results supported the contention that identity formation is a purposeful activity. Participants were more likely to ascribe alternative labels to their exercise behavior, and what it meant to be “old” mediated their perceptions of exercise. Results are discussed with regard to implications for interventions.

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Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Lauren J. Lieberman

Physical literacy refers to the confidence, competence, motivation, knowledge, and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities throughout the lifespan. Little is known regarding the physical literacy of children/adolescents with visual impairments (VIs). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of autonomous motivation in children/adolescents with VI (N = 41) from Latvia and the United States. A secondary aim was to explore differential effects of the country regarding all variables of interest. Methods: Within this preliminary investigation, levels of perceived motor competence, competence satisfaction, and autonomous motivation were captured in children/adolescents with VI located in Latvia and the United States. Results: Competence satisfaction and perceived motor competence significantly predicted autonomous motivation regardless of location. Significant differences regarding country occurred for competence satisfaction and autonomous motivation. Discussion/Conclusion: Implications for cultivating physical literacy for children/adolescents with VI involve strategies for physical educators focusing on fostering motivation.

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Sandra L. Gibbons, Vicki Ebbeck, Rebecca Y. Concepcion and Kin-Kit Li

This study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-month Team Building through Physical Challenges (TBPC; Glover & Midura, 1992) program on the self-perceptions and perceived social regard of middle school physical education students (N = 1802). Data were analyzed using multilevel analyses where midpoint and final evaluations were conducted separately. Results revealed that at the midpoint evaluation, students in the experimental and control conditions were not different on any of the subscales assessed. At the end of the program, students in the experimental condition, compared with those in the control condition, showed significantly higher scores on 6 of the 10 subscales assessed and the effect sizes were medium to very large. The findings support the effectiveness of the TBPC program in creating positive psychological outcomes for students in a field-based setting.

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John C. Spence, Kerry R. McGannon and Pauline Poon

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively review the body of research on exercise and global self-esteem (GSE). This review focuses specifically on studies using adults and also incorporates both published and unpublished works. Computer and manual searches identified 113 studies matching the selection criteria. Each study was coded according to 20 study features. A total of 128 effect sizes (d) were derived. As indicated by effect-size magnitude, participation in exercise brought about a small change in GSE (d = +0.23). Change in physical fitness and type of program were significant moderators of the effect of exercise on GSE. Larger effect sizes were observed for those who experienced significant changes in physical fitness and those participating in exercise or lifestyle programs as opposed to skills training.