least moderate intensity. When observing the amount of sedentary time during recess throughout the week, girls accumulated significantly more minutes (12.9 ± 9.4 min/day) as compared with boys (10.0 ± 6.5 min/day; p = .033). Significant sex differences were found, with boys obtaining greater amounts
Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens
Coen C.W.G. Bongers, Dominique S.M. ten Haaf, Nicholas Ravanelli, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels and Maria T.E. Hopman
the relation between CBT, WBSR, and heat production remains during exercise in ecologically valid conditions in a large heterogenous group of males and females ( n = 375), and assess whether there are sex differences in CBT and sweating responses. CBT and WBSR were measured during 3 editions (2008
Gregory A. Hand, Robin P. Shook, Daniel P. O’Connor, Madison M. Kindred, Sarah Schumacher, Clemens Drenowatz, Amanda E. Paluch, Stephanie Burgess, John E. Blundell and Steven N. Blair
female individuals showed a sex difference in change in energy stores ( F 2,27 = 6.771, P = .004, η p 2 = .142 ; Figure 3 ). Males showed no between-group differences in total kilocalories changes ( P = .976) while females in the 2 exercise groups showed a stepwise decrease in total energy stores
Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas and Dawn P. Coe
equation was described for each group by the standard error of the estimate. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine sex differences in agreement. Bland–Altman plots were constructed to assess agreement between VO 2 peak estimated from all equations, and VO 2 peak measured during the PACER
Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König
.pone.0160480 23. Ethun K . Chapter 9—Sex and gender differences in body composition, lipid metabolism, and glucose regulation . In: Neigh GN , Mitzelfelt MM , eds. Sex Differences in Physiology . Boston, MA : Academic Press ; 2016 : 145 – 165 . 10.1016/B978-0-12-802388-4.00009-4 24. Boning D
Christoph Alexander Rüst, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Romuald Lepers
The sex difference in ultraendurance performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners, and triathletes but not in cyclists. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex difference in the longest ultracycling race in the world, the Race Across America (RAAM).
Cycling speed of female and male finishers in the RAAM between 1982 and 2012 was compared.
A total of 452 athletes including 404 men (89.4%) and 48 women (10.6%) finished. Mean cycling speed was 19.4 ± 2.0 km/h for men and 17.5 ± 2.0 km/h for women. Men were riding 1.9 ± 2.0 km/h (10.9%) faster than women. The fastest cycling speed ever was 24.77 km/h for men and 21.27 km/h for women, with a sex difference of 14.2%. Between 1982 and 2012, cycling speed was 22.7 ± 1.1 km/h for the annual fastest men and 18.4 ± 1.6 km/h for the annual fastest women, with an unchanged sex difference of 19.4% ± 7.3% (P > .05). For the annual top 3 men, cycling speed was 21.8 ± 0.9 km/h with no change across years (P > .05). The annual top 3 women achieved a cycling speed of 16.6 ± 1.0 km/h with no change over time (P > .05). The sex difference of 24.6% ± 3.0% showed no change across years (P > .05).
In the last 30 y, men crossed America faster than women, and it seems unlikely that women will overtop men in the near future in the RAAM. However, the sex difference was only 14–15% among top competitors. Future studies need to analyze anthropometric, psychological, and physiological characteristics of successful female and male ultracyclists.
Mark B.A. De Ste Croix, Neil Armstrong and Joanne R. Welsman
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of repeated isokinetic knee extension and flexion in young children and to examine sex differences in 30 untrained subjects (16 boys and 14 girls) aged 12.2 ± 0.3 years. Total work and the percentage decline in average torque and work were recorded during 50 repetitions. Intra-class correlation coefficients indicated a strong positive correlation between test 1 and 2 for all parameters ranging from 0.36–0.95. Coefficient of variation data ranged from ± 0% to ± 5.4%. Repeatability coefficients and limits of agreement indicated that the extensors were more reliable than the flexors for both torque and work. There were no significant sex differences in any of the parameters measured. This study suggests that repeated isokinetic muscle actions of the knee, as a function of muscle endurance, can be reliably assessed in young people.
Sebastian Ludyga, Thomas Gronwald and Kuno Hottenrott
Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists’ cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men’s brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.
Anders Raustorp, Kjell Svensson and Thommy Perlinger
Tracking refers to the tendency for individuals to maintain their rank in a group over time. The authors explored tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity. In October of 2000, 2003, and 2005, data of physical activity as steps per day were collected with sealed Yamax SW-200 pedometers (Tokyo, Japan) for 4 consecutive schooldays in 97 (46 boys and 51 girls) Swedish adolescents (mean age 12.7 in 2000). In general, tracking of pedometer-determined physical activity was low to moderate during adolescence. A sex difference, with boys expressing higher tracking, was seen. Moderate tracking was seen in the individuals who, according to recommendations, were insufficiently active.
Lennart Raudsepp and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the gender differences in kinematics of running at maximal speed and overhand throwing, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children. Sixty 8-year-old children (33 boys and 27 girls) participated in this study. There were no sex differences with respect to the running kinematics, but in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength the boys surpassed the girls significantly (p < .05). However, in sit and reach and balance the girls surpassed the boys. Nonsignificant correlations (r = .20–.40) were found between the majority of variables. These results indicate gender differences in overhand throwing kinematics, motor performances, and muscle strength in prepubertal children.