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Yongjae Kim, Soojin Kim and Elizabeth Rogol

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of consumer innovativeness on sport fans’ behavioral intention to adopt and use sport team apps. Combining the diffusion theory with the technology acceptance model, the current study proposed three extended technology acceptance models. The proposed models were tested with data collected from 233 sport team apps users in the United States. The findings indicate that consumer innovativeness has direct and indirect influences on behavioral intention through beliefs about sport team apps. The partially mediated model fits the data well, was more parsimonious, and had a greater proportion of the variance explained by intention than the other models and thus was chosen for further analysis. Consumer innovativeness and beliefs about the apps explained 55.4% and 42% of the variance in intention to adopt sport team apps, respectively. Empirical evidence also provides strong support for the integrative approach. The study suggests an extended model of technology acceptance model for the acceptance and use of the sport team apps, which can help scholars and marketers understand sport fans’ media behaviors.

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Jimmy Sanderson, Blair Browning and Annelie Schmittel

College athletes are active on a variety of social-media platforms. As a result, most athletic departments require them to participate in social-media education. Although this practice is becoming more prominent, little research has explored how college athletes perceive such training. This case study explored college athletes’ social-media use and their perceptions about social-media education. Semi structured interviews of 20 college athletes at a Division I university were conducted. Using social-cognitive theory as a framework, analysis revealed that while participants expressed a desire for social-media education, they indicated that most of the messages they receive about social media tend to be forgettable. Consequently, athletic departments need to take a more refexive approach to social-media education that incorporates college athletes’ feedback to optimize this instruction.

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Ann Pegoraro

This case study investigated athletes’ use of a specific social-media platform—Twitter. Social media are a rising force in marketing and have been fully embraced by the sport industry, with teams, leagues, coaches, athletes, and managers establishing presences. Primarily these presences have been focused on Twitter, a microblogging site that allows users to post their personal thoughts in 140 characters or less. Athletes, in particular, have engaged in tweeting at a fast pace, which raises the question, What are they saying? This case study investigated the tweets of athletes over a 7-d period in an attempt to answer that question. The findings indicate that athletes are talking predominantly about their personal lives and responding to fans’ queries through Twitter. The results indicate that Twitter is a powerful tool for increasing fan–athlete interaction.

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Sun J. Kang, Jae-Pil Ha and Marion E. Hambrick

The popularity of smartphones has led to the creation of sport-related mobile applications in the areas of games, fitness, information, and events for sport consumers. The main purpose of this study was to examine why college students use sport-related mobile applications and what benefits they received from their usage. The study employed the Motivation Scale for Sport Online Consumption and the Technology Acceptance Model to understand this usage in more detail. Using a mixed-method approach, the study revealed that college students identified fanship, convenience, and information as primary motives for using their sport-related mobile applications. For college students who are sport fans, supporting their fanship through these applications represents an important aspect of their lifestyle. Sport managers and sport application developers will benefit from understanding users’ intentions and motives as the market for sport-related applications continues to grow.

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Joshua R. Pate and Alyssa T. Bosley

skills that athletic department personnel want and need in a college graduate seeking an entry-level position in a sport communication, media relations, or sports information office. Furthermore, college athletic departments that train student workers are oftentimes an extension of their learning

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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

( Phua, Pan, & Chen, 2018 ) reflects important implications for sport communication. Given the challenges of gaining a foothold in a saturated sport marketplace ( Dwyer, Greenhalgh, & LeCrom, 2016 ), it is important for sport organizations to understand what types of social exchanges sport fans are

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Mark Lowes and Christopher Robillard

traditional sport-journalism work routines and news-production practices. In this scholarly commentary, our approach here is to draw on existing sport communication literature in an exploration of social media’s role in, and impact on, sport journalism practices. Exploration in this context is a particular

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Galen Clavio

Internet-based sport communication mediums represent a crucial area of scholarly inquiry for the field. The continuing growth in popularity of blogs, message boards, and other Internet-specific types of sport communication presents sport communication scholars with a plethora of avenues for research. This commentary examines one such avenue, through a survey administered to users on 14 college sport message boards. Survey results indicated that message-board users were primarily male (87.8%) and White (90.8%) and possessed at least an undergraduate degree (76.0%). In addition, 42.2% of users reported a household income of $100,000 or more per year. The analysis of the resulting demographic and usage data highlights some of the key aspects of this sample of users, including information relating to race, gender, income, education level, and salience of message-board use by both subscribers and nonsubscribers. These and other factors are presented as potential areas of future scholarly inquiry for sport communication researchers.

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Dustin A. Hahn

sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest used the new media for sport information seeking, relaxation, and interaction. Finally, while studies outside sport communication ( Sheldon & Bryant, 2016 ) have identified Instagram as the fastest growing social media site with users most interested in

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David E. Clementson

This case study examined the effects of equivocation in sport communication. U.S. National Football League quarterback Tom Brady held a press conference in January 2015 during a scandal. The author experimentally manipulated versions of the press conference, one with equivocal parts included (e.g., “I don’t know, I have no idea”), and one with those parts removed. Outcome measures included source credibility and perceptions of dodging questions. When Brady equivocated, participants perceived him to have more goodwill. Furthermore, his equivocal answers were not perceived as dodging the questions. This case study helps extend predictions of strategic ambiguity and equivocation theory into the field of sport communication.