Individual interviews were conducted with 17 Canadian Olympic coaches in order to assess sport psychology consultants and services provided to their athletes and teams in the 4 years leading up to the 1984 Olympic Games. The coaches represented a wide range of sports; all but 2 had worked directly with a sport psychology consultant in preparing their athletes for the Olympics. A total of 21 consultants were reviewed and evaluated. The coaches outlined their personal criteria for assessing the effectiveness of a sport psychology consultant and his or her mental training program. A consensus regarding desired personal consultant characteristics is presented, as well as coaches’ reasons for retaining or terminating the services of a sport psychology consultant.
John Partington and Terry Orlick
William B. Strean and Herbert S. Strean
Sport psychology practitioners use various theoretical perspectives to inform their work. The potential contribution of psychodynamic concepts to professional sport psychology practice is explored. The basics of psychodynamic theory as it relates to normal personality, maladaptive functioning, and therapeutic intervention are reviewed. Specific attention is addressed to free association, resistance, transference, and countertransference. Treatment procedures, such as confrontation, clarification, and interpretation, are presented. Suggestions for including psychodynamic principles within other frameworks are offered.
Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp
In the field of applied sport psychology, sport psychology consultants (SPCs) help their clients enhance the process of performance, holistic well-being, and social functioning (Association for Applied Sport Psychology, [ AASP], 2016 ). Although coaches are discussed as client recipients in a
Brad D. Hatfield and Daniel M. Landers
An area of inquiry that has largely been ignored in scientific studies in the field of sport psychology/motor performance is the subdiscipline of psychology called psychophysiology. This subdiscipline, which is concerned with inferences of psychological processes and emotional states from an examination of physiological measures, is rich in methodological and theoretical insights that could improve research and practice within sport psychology/motor performance. The current methodological and theoretical issues in psychophysiology are first reviewed and then specifically related to recent sport studies that demonstrate their applicability to the enhancement of both theoretical and applied aspects of sport.
Robert M. Nideffer, Peter DuFresne, David Nesvig and Dennis Selder
Applied sport psychology is a field that is still in search of a definition. This article examines some of the ethical issues involved in the provision of psychological services to athletes and coaches. Observations are made regarding the types of services that sport psychologists are offering. The need for the development of applied internship experiences is emphasized.
Brenda Light Bredemeier
This article presents a discussion of feminist praxis in sport psychology research. Praxis is a dialectical process of reflection and action that is motivated by one’s commitment to transformation. Those who are engaged in feminist praxis are working to transform the power and privilege differentials based on social structures and practices that deny or diminish the full humanity of all peoples. Sport psychology research that is grounded in feminist praxis seeks to better understand the sport experiences of marginalized people, especially girls and women, in order to inform strategies and processes for personal and social change. Two research projects are used to illustrate feminist praxis in sport psychology research. The first research project involved an investigation of women’s epistemological perspectives in their daily lives and physical activity domains. The second involved a study of lesbian moral exemplars who have been active and influential in sport. The feminist praxis that grounded both projects impacted the relationships among sport psychology researchers and study participants as well as other methodological considerations.
Lawrence R. Brawley and Kathleen A. Martin
Over the past three decades, an interface has developed between sport and social psychology, characterized primarily by commonly utilized concepts and theories. The list of social psychological benefits to sport psychology is lengthy and includes theory, hypotheses, research paradigms, general independent and dependent variables, methods, and measures. In this paper, the following areas of sport research are used to illustrate the interface between sport and social psychology: (a) social facilitation and cohesion as two social influence phenomena, (b) anxiety and goal orientations as personality moderators of social behavior, and (c) self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes as social cognitions relevant to motivated behavior. Each of these areas are discussed in terms of social psychology’s impact on its development as a line of research in sport and in terms of the recent contributions each has made in return to social psychology. The general nature of the interface of social and sport psychology is also discussed.
William B. Strean
Various forms of qualitative research can aid our applied practice by increasing our understanding of the contexts and psychological dynamics of sport. To reap greater benefits from qualitative research, a key step will be to recognize and accept different views of knowledge that underlie many qualitative approaches. From this perspective, this paper focuses on possibilities to use qualitative research in sport psychology to describe, interpret, verify, and evaluate phenomena of interest. The potential of qualitative research to allow for surprises and produce understandable and credible findings and theories is also addressed. The spirit of the paper and the conclusion focus on the many ways in which the “goodness” (Peshkin, 1993) or “strength” (Maxwell, 1996) of qualitative research can be part of what is done in sport psychology.
Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block and Nick Galli
is the evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality, or ability of someone or something. Assessment is the first step in sport psychology interventions, with the assessment process informing the subsequent intervention approach and process. Of course, assessment is ongoing and progressive within
Raymond P. Harrison and Deborah L. Feltz
Sport psychology by its very title implies that it is a specialty within psychology. However, many sport psychologists have primary allegiance to other fields besides psychology, and many are not licensed or even eligible for licensing to practice psychology. Problems which have occurred for other psychological specialties are reviewed as a means of predicting conflicts which might arise between unlicensed sport psychologists and state psychology licensing boards. Several alternative responses are outlined by which sport psychologists might minimize future legal conflicts. In any event, sport psychologists should begin now to anticipate these difficulties and prepare means for dealing with them.